ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the U. S. National Science Foundation.
ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
NguniPO000108J

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  16S, 16.5E; 34S, 33E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: National Geographic: Culture Record     The Zulu Nation in South Africa Record    Ethnologue Language Family Tree Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The Nguni linguistic group is a subfamily of the Bantu language family. The Nguni can be partitioned into northern and southern groups. The Xhosa, Pondo and Thembu of the Eastern Cape, are the major tribes of the South Nguni, while the Zulu, the Swazi of Swaziland and the are of the Northern Nguni. The ancient history of the Nguni people is wrapped up in their oral history. According to legend they were a people who migrated from Egypt to the Great Lakes region of sub-equatorial Central/East Africa. As a pastoral people their wealth was measure in the number of cattle they owned. About 3,000 years ago the Nguni began moving southeast towards the Indian Ocean. The Nguni (Ndebele, Swazi, Xhosa and Zulu tribes) diverged from the Sotho-Tswana and Tsonga within the past 1,000-2,000 years (Jorde et al. 1995). At some point along their southward journey, they came in contact with contact with San hunters, which is why they now produce the "click" sounds that characterize their languages today. In the 16th century many Nguni tribes began to move to the southeastern side of the Lebombo Mountains. Throughout the years the Nguni tribes continued to press southwards and tended to settle in scattered, semi-independent groups throughout recent history. In the Nguni culture intermarriage is not allowed (National Geographic).
References:
- Malcolm DMcK. "The Nguni, section III. The Zulu, with an introductory article on the Zulu". Cambridge, Deighton, Bell & Co., Ltd. (1938)

- Van Warmelo NJ. "The Nguni". Cambridge : Deighton, Bell & co., ltd. etc. (1939)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Nguni

Sample UID: SA000695U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Nguni-speakers and is made of of Zulu, Swazi, Xhosa, and Ndebele.

Number of Chromosomes: 88

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of sample SA000529Q

References:
- Romualdi C, Balding D, Nasidze IS, Risch G, Robichaux M, Sherry ST, Stoneking M, Batzer MA, Barbujani G. "Patterns of human diversity, within and among continents, inferred from Biallilic DNA polymorphisms". Genome Res 12:602-612. (2002) Online citation.

- Soodyall H, Vigilant L, Hill AV, Stoneking M, Jenkins T. "mtDNA control-region sequence variation suggests multiple independent origins of an "Asian-specific" 9-bp deletion in the Sub-Saharan Africans". Am J Hum Genet 58:595-608. (1996) Online citation.

- Stoneking M, Fontius JJ, Clifford SL, Soodyall H, Arcot SS, Saha N, Jenkins T, Tahir MA, Deininger PL, Batzer MA. "Alu insertion polymorphisms and human evolution: evidence for a larger population size in Africa ". Genome Res 7:1061-71. (1997) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Nguni

Sample UID: SA000116I

Sample Description:Nguni

Number of Chromosomes: 28

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jorde LB, Bamshad MJ, Watkins WS, Zenger R, Fraley AE, Krakowiak PA, Carpenter KD, Soodyall H, Jenkins T, Rogers AR. "Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:523-538. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Nguni

Sample UID: SA000529Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Nguni-speakers and is made of of Zulu, Swazi, Xhosa, and Ndebele.

Number of Chromosomes: 86

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Soodyall H, Vigilant L, Hill AV, Stoneking M, Jenkins T. "mtDNA control-region sequence variation suggests multiple independent origins of an "Asian-specific" 9-bp deletion in the Sub-Saharan Africans". Am J Hum Genet 58:595-608. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Nguni

Sample UID: SA003721N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Nguni individuals from Southern Africa. The DNA for this sample contributed by T.Jerkins and H.Soodyall.

Number of Chromosomes: 18

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000116I

References:
- Xing J, Watkins WS, Shlien A, Walker E, Huff CD, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Simonson TS, Weiss RB, Schiffman JD, Malkin D, Woodward SR, Jorde LB. "Toward a more uniform sampling of human genetic diversity: a survey of worldwide populations by high-density genotyping". Genomics 96:199-210. (2010) Online citation.

- Xing J, Watkins WS, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Guthery SL, Thara R, Mowry BJ, Bulayeva K, Weiss RB, Jorde LB. "Fine-scaled human genetic structure revealed by SNP microarrays". Genome Res. 19:815-25. (2009) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2014 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan