ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
HakkaPO000003DCHINESE, HAKKASINO-TIBETAN

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  35N, 105E; 22N, 122E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Bethany WPC: Hakka Record    Ethnologue: Language Map Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The Hakka are part of the Han Chinese. Their descendants migrated in stages from the north of China (perhaps from the Hanan and Shansi provinces) to the south of China between the 4th and 8th centuries. During the 18th and 19th centuries there were many feuds over land and water. It is for this reason that today the Hakka can be found in many other countries, for example: Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, Canada, and Australia. The Hakka language contains elements of both Mandarin and Cantonese; it is part of the Sino-Tibetan language family. The traditional Hakka family is patrilocal. They continue to practice ancestral worship and are involved in shamanism.
References:
- Cohen ML. "The Hakka or 'guest people': dialect as a sociocultural variable in southeastern China ". Ethnohistory 15:237-92 . (1968)

- Jiann H. "Persistence and preservation of Hakka culture in urban situations: a preliminary study of voluntary associations of the Waichow Hakka in Hong Kong". Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 20:34-53. (1980)

- Kanda S. "Anthropological studies on the inhabitants [of] Formosa: somatometries on the Hoklo and Hakka Chinese and the Atayals and Amis". Journal of the Anthropological Society of Nippon 82:269-88. (1974)

- Mong LS. "The Hakkas". Journal of the Malaysian branch Royal Asiatic Society 53:107-10. (1980)

- Suenari M. "Two types of territorial organization: a preliminary report of a Hakka village in Taiwan Bulletin". The Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica (Taipei). Ethnology 59:29-46. (1985)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hakka, males

Sample UID: SA000003D

Sample Description:Sample is composed mostly of males from Taiwan collected by R-B Lu.

Number of Chromosomes: 86

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hakka

Sample UID: SA001374P

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated Hakka Taiwanese.

Number of Chromosomes: 102

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yu LC, Chu CC, Chan YS, Chang CY, Twu YC, Lee HL, Lin M. "Polymorphism and distribution of the Secretor alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene in various Taiwanese populations". Transfusion 41:1279-1284. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hakka

Sample UID: SA003978B

Sample Description:This sample is the subset of the Kidd Lab Hakka sample. This sample is composed mostly of males from Taiwan collected by R-B Lu.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000003D

References:
- Publication pending


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hakka

Sample UID: SA002923Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of males from Guangxi, China.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shi H, Tan SJ, Zhong H, Hu W, Levine A, Xiao CJ, Peng Y, Qi XB, Shou WH, Ma RL, Li Y, Su B, Lu X "Winter temperature and UV are tightly linked to genetic changes in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway in Eastern Asia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:534-41.. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hakka

Sample UID: SA004385U

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Kidd Lab sample collection and is subset of sample SA000003D.

Number of Chromosomes: 74

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000003D

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hakka

Sample UID: SA004710M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Hakka individuals in East Asia. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 80

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hakka(Meizhou)

Sample UID: SA004317P

Sample Description:This sample consists of Hakka individuals from Guangdong province, China. Meizhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guangdong province

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Pakstis AJ , Haigh E, Cherni L, Ben Ammar ElGaaied A, Barton A, Evsanaa B, Togtokh A, Brissenden J, Roscoe J, Bulbul O, Filoglu G, Gurkan C, Meiklejohn KA, Robertson JM, Li,C.-X. Wei Y.-L., Li H,Soundararajan U,Rajeevan H, Kidd JR, Kidd KK "52 additional reference population samples for the 55 AISNP panel". Forensic Science International: Genetics 269-271. (2015) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
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