ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
DanesPO000007HDANISHINDO-EUROPEAN

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  54.7N, 8E; 58N, 13E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Map Record     flag Record    Encarta: Country Description Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record    Royal Danish Embassy: History and Culture Record    Ethnologue: Country Description Record     Danish History Record    
References: See references
Population Description: Denmark includes a large part of the Jutland Peninsula as well as a collection of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea and North Sea. The various agricultural peoples of this peninsula, such as the of New Stone Age and various Gothic German and Scandinavian groups that immigrated there, coalesced into a centralized kingdom in the 8th century AD during Denmark's "Viking Age." Denmark became a very ethnically homogenous nation of Nordic people, 95% of whom are ethnic Danes. The Danish language is closely related to Swedish and Norwegian and is part of the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
References:
- Forlag GR, Prakash G. "The Danes are like that: perspectives of an Indian anthropologist on Danish society.". Grevas Forlag. M?rke (Denmark) (1993)

- Liep J. "From history of culture to culture and history: the transformation of Danish anthropology". Anthropologie et Societes 11:35-55. (1987)

- Ostergard U. "Peasants and Danes: the Danish national identity and political culture". Comparative Studies in Society and History 34:3-27. (1992)

- Thurston TL. "Historians, prehistorians, and the tyranny of the historical record: Danish state formation through documents and archaeological data". Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 4:239-63. (1997)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes

Sample UID: SA000007H

Sample Description:Collected by J. Parnas from a random sample of Danish-surname donors to the Copenhagen Blood Bank.

Number of Chromosomes: 102

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Castiglione CM, Deinard AS, Speed WC, Sirugo G, Rosenbaum HC, Zhang Y, Grandy DK, Grigorenko EL, Bonne-Tamir B, Pakstis AJ, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Evolution of haplotypes at the DRD2 locus". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:1445-56. (1995) Online citation.

- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Chang FM, Kidd KK "Rapid molecular haplotyping of the first exon of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene by hetroduplex analysis". American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 74:91-4. (1997) Online citation.

- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/abiinfo.html

- Kidd KK, Morar B, Castiglione CM, Zhao H, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Goldman D, Lee C, Nam YS, Grandy DK, Jenkins T, Kidd JR. "A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus". Hum. Genet. 103:211-27. (1998) Online citation.

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes, unrelated

Sample UID: SA000046K

Sample Description:Unrelated Danish (unrelated individuals from large pedigrees).

Number of Chromosomes: 90

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Matthysse S, Holzman PS, Gusella JF, Levy DL, Harte CB, Jorgensen A, Moller L, Parnas J. "Linkage of eye movement dysfunction to chromosome 6p in schizophrenia: additional evidence". Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 128:30-36. (2004) Online citation.

- Sirugo G, Matthysse S, Parnas J, Levy DL, Greschel T, Pakstis AJ, McInnis M, Ross CA, Holzman PS, Kidd KK. "Detection of a large CTG/CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in a Danish schizophrenia kindred". American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 74:546-8. (1997)

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes

Sample UID: SA001807Q

Sample Description:Danish (unrelated individuals from large pedigrees).

This sample is a subset of SA000046K.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000046K

References:
- Verdu P, Barreiro LB, Patin E, Gessain A, Cassar O, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Behar DM, Froment A, Heyer E, Sica L, Casanova J-L, Abel L, Quintana-Murci L. "Evolutionary Insights into the High Worldwide Prevalence of MBL2 Deficiency Alleles". Hum Mol Genet. 15:2650-2658. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes

Sample UID: SA001862R

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from Copenhagen, Denmark.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Libert F, Cochaux P, Beckman G, Samson M, Aksenova M, Cao A, Czeizel A, Claustres M, de la Rua C, Ferrari M, Ferrec C, Glover G, Grinde B, Guran S, Kucinskas V, Lavinha J, Mercier B, Ogur G, Peltonen L, Rosatelli C, Schwartz M, Spitsyn V, Timar L, Beckman L, Parmentier M, Vassart G "The deltaccr5 mutation conferring protection against HIV-1 in Caucasian populations has a single and recent origin in Northeastern Europe". Hum Mol Genet. 7:399-406.. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danish

Sample UID: SA002007J

Sample Description:This sample consists of women and men recruited randomly from the Danish Central Population Register. More than 99% were Whites of Danish descent.

Number of Chromosomes: 20270

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Sethi AA, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Jensen GB, Nordestgaard BG "164Ile allele in the beta2-Adrenergic receptor gene is associated with risk of elevated blood pressure in women. The Copenhagen City Heart Study". Pharmacogenet Genomics. 15:633-45. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes

Sample UID: SA002061J

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Danes collected by J. Parnas from a random sample of Danish-surname donors to the Copenhagen Blood Bank. It also consists of unrelated Danes from large pedigrees.

This sample is a combination of sample SA000007H and SA000046K.

Number of Chromosomes: 192

Relation to Other Samples: Combination of SA000007H and SA000046K

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danish

Sample UID: SA001987Z

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals participating in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective cardiovascular population study recruiting women and men randomly from the Danish Central Population Register to obtain a representative sample of the adult Danish general population.

Number of Chromosomes: 18368

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Sethi AA, Nordestgaard BG, Gronholdt ML, Steffensen R, Jensen G, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. "Angiotensinogen single nucleotide polymorphisms, elevated blood pressure, and risk of cardiovascular disease". Hypertension. 41:1202-1211. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danish

Sample UID: SA003637T

Sample Description:This sample consists of randomly selected Danish individuals from the national Danish Civil Registration System. This sample is from the Copenhagen General Population Study.

Number of Chromosomes: 106442

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Lawlor DA, Harbord RM, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Palmer TM, Zacho J, Benn M, Timpson NJ, Smith GD, Nordestgaard BG. "Using genetic loci to understand the relationship between adiposity and psychological distress: a Mendelian Randomization study in the Copenhagen General Population Study of 53,221 adults". J Intern Med. 1365-2796. (2011) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Denmark

Sample UID: SA002452N

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from Denmark.

Number of Chromosomes: 478

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Lucotte G, Mercier G. "Distribution of the CCR5 gene 32-bp deletion in Europe". J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 19:174-7. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danish

Sample UID: SA002722N

Sample Description:This sample comes from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, which is a series of studies conducted in the Danish general population. All participants gave written consent and the ethics committee for Copenhagen and Frederiksberg approved the study. Eligibility criterion for participation was Danish citizenship.

Number of Chromosomes: 18160

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tolstrup JS, Nordestgaard BG, Rasmussen S, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Grønbaek M "Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes". Pharmacogenomics J. 8:220-7. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danish

Sample UID: SA002486U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Danish individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Stephens JC, Reich DE, Goldstein DB, Shin HD, Smith MW et.al. "Dating the origin of the CCR5-Delta32 AIDS-resistance allele by the coalescence of haplotypes". Am J Hum Genet. 62:1507-15. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danish

Sample UID: SA001998B

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals of Danish ancestry from Danish paternity cases.

Number of Chromosomes: 312

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Sánchez JJ, Phillips C, Borsting C, Balogh K, Bogus M, Fondevila M, Harrison CD, Musgrave-Brown E, Salas A, Syndercombe-Court D, Schneider PM, Carracedo A, Morling N. "A multiplex assay with 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms for human identification". Electrophoresis. 27:1713-1724. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes

Sample UID: SA003246P

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from Aarhus, Denmark.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 932

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.

- Gerdes LU, Klausen IC, Sihm I, Faergeman O. "Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in a Danish population compared to findings in 45 other study populations around the world". Genet Epidemiol. 9:155-67. (1992) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes

Sample UID: SA004635S

Sample Description:This sample consists of 142 self-declared Danes with parents and grandparents born in Denmark.

Number of Chromosomes: 284

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Pereira V, Mogensen HS, Borsting C, Morling N "Evaluation of the Precision ID Ancestry Panel for crime case work: A SNP typing assay developed for typing of 165 ancestral informative markers". Forensic Sci Int Genet 28:138-145. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Dane in North Europe(DNE)

Sample UID: SA004397X

Sample Description:This sample is part of KiddLab sample collection. This sample was provided by K.K. Kidd, Yale University to Caixia Li's group for typing their markers

Number of Chromosomes: 62

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of Sample SA000007H

References:
- Wei YL, Wei L, Zhao L, Sun QF, Jiang L, Zhang T, Liu HB, Chen JG, Ye J, Hu L, Li CX "A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents". Int J Legal Med. 130:27-37. (2016) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes

Sample UID: SA004062M

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Danes.

Number of Chromosomes: 160

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Friis SL, Børsting C, Rockenbauer E, Poulsen L, Fredslund SF, Tomas C, Morling N. "Typing of 30 insertion/deletions in Danes using the first commercial indel kit--Mentype® DIPplex". Forensic Sci Int Genet 6:e72-4. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Copenhagen

Sample UID: SA004176S

Sample Description:This sample consists of volunteers from Copenhagen, Denmark. Informed consent was obtained from all individuals and ethical approval was granted from the ethics committee of clinical investigation in Galicia, Spain.

Number of Chromosomes: 38

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ruiz Y, Phillips C, Gomez-Tato A, Alvarez-Dios J, Casares de Cal M, Cruz R, Maroñas O, Söchtig J, Fondevila M, Rodriguez-Cid MJ, Carracedo A, Lareu MV. "Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests". Forensic Sci Int Genet. (Epub,ahead of print) 7:28-40. (2013) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Denmark

Sample UID: SA004122J

Sample Description:This sample is part of the EPIC study and consists of healthy men and women from Denmark.

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study includes participants in 23 centres located in 10 European countries.

Number of Chromosomes: 316

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Riboli E, Hunt KJ, Slimani N, Ferrari P, Norat T, Fahey M, Charrondière UR, Hémon B, Casagrande C, Vignat J, Overvad K et al. "European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection". Public Health Nutr 5:1113-24. (2002) Online citation.

- Travis RC, Appleby PN, Siddiq A, Allen NE, Kaaks R, Canzian F, Feller S, Tjønneland A, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Quirós JR, et al. "Genetic variation in the lactase gene, dairy product intake and risk for prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition". Int J Cancer (Epub, ahead of print) (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Danes

Sample UID: SA004392S

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Kidd lab sample collection and is subset of sample SA000007H.

Number of Chromosomes: 86

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000007H

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Dane

Sample UID: SA004698B

Sample Description:This sample consists of Dane individuals in Northern Europe. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 102

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan