ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
DruzePO000008IARABICAFRO-ASIATIC

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  32.5N, 35E; 34N, 37E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Description Record    Ethnologue: Language Map Record     Mowahhidoon Record    Encyclopaedia of the Orient: Druze Record    
References: See references
Population Description:  The Druze, who call themselves "Mowahhidun" ('monotheists') are a Middle Eastern group of some 500,000 people who live in small villages in the mountains of Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan. Although the Druze are not considered Muslims by the general Muslim community, they consider themselves to be Muslim. The Druze speak Arabic like their Muslim neighbors but are distinguished by unique religious beliefs. The ancestors of modern Druzes were the Isma'ilis, a group of Shi'is, who existed as a seperate ethnic group before adapting Druze beliefs during the medieval period. Although Druze practice encourages members to assimilate outwardly to the practices of the more dominant religious groups around them, the Druze do not allow conversion into or out of their faith and practice strict endogamy.
References:
- Kirrish F. "Definition of ethnic boundaries - the case of the Druze of the Golan heights". Cambridge Anthropology 11:70-8. (1986)

- Nevo S. "Genetic blood markers in Arab Druze of Israel". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 77:183-190. (1988)

- Oppenheimer J. "The Druze in Israel, as Arabs and non-Arabs: an essay on the manipulation of categories of identity in a non-civil state". Cambridge Anthropology 4:23-44. (1978)

- Zenner WP, Richter MN Jr. "The Druzes as a divided minority group". Journal of Asian and African Studies 7:193-203. (1972)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Druze, unrelated

Sample UID: SA000047L

Sample Description:The Druze, a Moslem community from Northern Israel
Collected by B. Bonne-Tamir (Tel Aviv University) as part of the National Laboratory for the Genetics of Israeli Populations. This sample contains both related and unrelated individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 212

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd KK, Morar B, Castiglione CM, Zhao H, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Goldman D, Lee C, Nam YS, Grandy DK, Jenkins T, Kidd JR. "A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus". Hum. Genet. 103:211-27. (1998) Online citation.

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Druze, Israel

Sample UID: SA000008I

Sample Description:The Druze, a Moslem community from Northern Israel
Collected by B. Bonne-Tamir (Tel Aviv University) as part of the repository of samples of Israeli populations. This sample contains both related and unrelated individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 212

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kidd JR, Black FL, Weiss KM, Balazs I, Kidd KK. "Studies of three Amerindian populations using nuclear DNA polymorphisms.". Human Biology 63:775. (1991) Online citation.

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html

- Kidd KK, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, New MI. "Genetic diversity among Jews, Diseases and Markers at the DNA Level". Bonne-Tamir B and Adam A, Eds. (Oxford University Press, Oxford) 33-44. (1992)

- Mateu E, Calafell F, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Casals T, Kidd KK, Bertranpetit J. "Allele Frequencies in a Worldwide Survey of a CA Repeat in the First Intron of the CFTR Gene". Human Heredity 49:15-20. (1999) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Zoossmann-Disken A, Ticher A, Hakim I, Goldwitch Z, Rubinstein A, Bonne-Tamir B. "Genetic affinities of Ethiopian Jews. affinities of Ethiopian Jews". Israel J. of Med. Sciences 27:245. (1991) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Druze

Sample UID: SA002032H

Sample Description:This sample consists of Druze individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Nakajima T, Wooding S, Sakagami T, Emi M, Tokunaga K, Tamiya G, Ishigami T, Umemura S, Munkhbat B, Jin F, Guan-Jun J, Hayasaka I, Ishida T, Saitou N, Pavelka K, Lalouel JM, Jorde LB, Inoue I. "Natural selection and population history in the human angiotensinogen gene (AGT): 736 complete AGT sequences in chromosomes from around the world". Am J Hum Genet 74:898-916. (2004) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Druze, HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001473P

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH).

The Druze, a Moslem community from Northern Israel. Collected by B. Bonne-Tamir (Tel Aviv University) as part of the repository of samples of Israeli populations. This sample contains both related and unrelated individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 96

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000008I

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW. "Genetic structure of human populations". Science 298:2381-2385. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Druze

Sample UID: SA003961T

Sample Description:This sample is the subset of Kidd Lab Druze sample. The Druze, a Moslem community from Northern Israel Collected by B. Bonne-Tamir (Tel Aviv University) as part of the National Laboratory for the Genetics of Israeli Populations.

Number of Chromosomes: 58

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000047L

References:
- Publication pending


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Druze, HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA002257Q

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH).

The Druze, a Moslem community from Northern Israel. Collected by B. Bonne-Tamir (Tel Aviv University) as part of the repository of samples of Israeli populations. This sample contains both related and unrelated individuals.

This sample is known as dataset "H1048" and is a subset of SA001473P.Note: In many publications subset H952 of the HGDP panel (with first and second degree relatives excluded from the original set) was typed and for this population that decreases the sample size from 47 to 42 individuals and for the subset H971 of the HGDP panel(with only the first degree relatives excluded) the sample size decreases from 47 to 44 individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 94

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA001473P

References:
- Rosenberg NA. "Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.". Ann Hum Genet. 70:841-847. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Druze

Sample UID: SA002042I

Sample Description:This sample consists of Druze from Israel and the area of the Palestinian Authority. Individuals are unrelated at the grandpaternal level and ethnic origin was self-declared.

Number of Chromosomes: 28

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ingram CJ, Elamin MF, Mulcare CA, Weale ME, Tarekegn A, Raga TO, Bekele E, Elamin FM, Thomas MG, Bradman N, Swallow DM. "A novel polymorphism associated with lactose tolerance in Africa: multiple causes for lactase persistence?". Hum Genet. 120:779-788. (2007) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Druze, Israel

Sample UID: SA004703O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Druze individuals from Israel (West Asia). Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 230

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan