ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
Jews, EthiopianPO000015GAMHARICAfro-Asiatic

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  15N, 35E; 12N, 40E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources:  The Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews: IJEA's History (Reference) Record    Ethnologue: Language Map Record     The Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The Ethiopian Jews, also called Beta Israel, are presently composed of more than 40,000 individuals in Israel and perhaps as many as 20,000 who remain in northern Ethiopia (1994 est.). Their established community exists in the northwest region of Ethiopia, an area just north of Lake Tana that includes Gondar, Simen, and Tigrai. Traditionally, they did not use Hebrew; instead, they spoke Amharic and other common Afro-Asiatic languages of Ethiopia. They are ethnically an Ethiopian people, of Agaw stock, who formerly lived in the highland regions of northern Ethiopia. For many centuries they have preserved a Judaic tradition and way of life. They follow strict observances of the laws of the Pentateuch.

Little is known about the early history of these people. According to their own traditions the Ethiopian Jews came to Ethiopia from Egypt in 486 BC. They were relatively isolated until the 13th century where fighting began with neighboring tribes and continued for the next three centuries. Following colonial inspired wars in 1620 the group was subjugated and historical records were lost. Little further outside contact was made with the group until the twentieth century. Between the 1970s and 1990s thousands of Ethiopian Jews migrated to Israel in a series of waves.
References:
- Abbink J. "The enigma of Beta Esrael ethnogenesis. An anthro-historical study ". Cahiers d'etudes africaines 30:397-449, 539. (1990)

- Gennarelli M, Pavoni M, Cruciani F, De Stefano G, Dallapiccola B, Novelli G. "CTG repeats distribution and Alu insertion polymorphism at myotonic dystrophy (DM) gene in Amhara and Oromo populations of Ethiopia". Hum. Genet. 105:165-7. (1999)

- Kantor R, Gershoni JM. "Distribution of the CCR5 gene 32-base pair deletion in Israeli ethnic groups". J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 20:81-4. (1999)

- Lucotte G, Smets P. "Origins of Falasha Jews studied by haplotypes of the Y chromosome". Hum. Biol. 71:989-93. (1999)

- Quirin J "The evolution of the Ethiopian Jews. A history of the Beta Israel (Falasha) to 1920". (1992)

- Quirin J. "Oral traditions as historical sources in Ethiopia: the case of the Beta Israel (Falasha) ". History in Africa 20:297-312. (1993)

- Shelemay KK "'Music, ritual, and Falasha history'". Ethiop Ser Monogr 17:(1986)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ethiopian Jews, unrelated

Sample UID: SA000050F

Sample Description:Unrelated Ethiopian Jews collected by Prof. B. Bonne-Tamir as part of the repository of samples on Israeli populations (National Laboratory for the Genetics of Israeli Populations). DNA only.

Number of Chromosomes: 122

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ethiopian Jews, Unrelated

Sample UID: SA000015G

Sample Description:Unrelated Ethiopian Jews collected by Prof. B. Bonne-Tamir as part of the repository of samples on Israeli populations (National Laboratory for the Genetics of Israeli Populations). A sample being routinely studied in the laboratory of Drs. K. and J. Kidd.

Number of Chromosomes: 64

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd JR, Black FL, Weiss KM, Balazs I, Kidd KK. "Studies of three Amerindian populations using nuclear DNA polymorphisms.". Human Biology 63:775. (1991) Online citation.

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html

- Kidd KK, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, New MI. "Genetic diversity among Jews, Diseases and Markers at the DNA Level". Bonne-Tamir B and Adam A, Eds. (Oxford University Press, Oxford) 33-44. (1992)

- Kidd KK, Morar B, Castiglione CM, Zhao H, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Goldman D, Lee C, Nam YS, Grandy DK, Jenkins T, Kidd JR. "A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus". Hum. Genet. 103:211-27. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Zoossmann-Disken A, Ticher A, Hakim I, Goldwitch Z, Rubinstein A, Bonne-Tamir B. "Genetic affinities of Ethiopian Jews. affinities of Ethiopian Jews". Israel J. of Med. Sciences 27:245. (1991) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ethiopian Jews, DNA

Sample UID: SA000049N

Sample Description:A combined sample of unrelated individuals selected from samples 50 and 51. DNA only.

Number of Chromosomes: 132

Relation to Other Samples: A combined sample of unrelated individuals selected from samples 50 and 51.

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ethiopian Jews, related

Sample UID: SA000051G

Sample Description:Collected by B. Bonne-Tamir as part of the repository of samples on Israeli populations. An early sample of DNA only probably overlapping with sample 50.

Number of Chromosomes: 98

Relation to Other Samples: sample overlaps with sample 50.

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ethiopian Jews

Sample UID: SA003973W

Sample Description:This sample is the subset of the Kidd Lab Ethiopian Jews sample. This sample consists of unrelated Ethiopian Jews collected by Prof. B. Bonne-Tamir as part of the repository of samples on Israeli populations (National Laboratory for the Genetics of Israeli Populations).

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of Sample SA000015G

References:
- Publication pending


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ethiopian Jew

Sample UID: SA004690T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ethiopian Jews from East Africa. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 64

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ethiopian Jews

Sample UID: SA004368V

Sample Description:This sample is part of KiddLab samples collection and is a subset of SA000050F.

Number of Chromosomes: 62

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000050F

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan