ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
RussiansPO000019KRUSSIANIndo-European

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  85N, 30E; 45N, 180E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Map Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record    Ethnologue: Country Description Record    Encarta: Country Description Record    
References: See references
Population Description: Russians are the dominant ethnic group of the Russian Federation. They make up 81.5% of the country's population, approximately 145,000,000 people. Russians have endured several periods of foreign rule during the medieval period, first under the Scandinavian "Rus" and then under the Mongols. Therefore, although the population is primarily of Slavic descent both the Rus and the Mongols were somewhat assimilated into the larger Russian population. Russian and Soviet expansion led to the establishment of sizeable Russian populations throughout Northern Eurasia; many of the newly independent republics of the former Soviet Union have large Russian minorities. The Russian language is part of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
References:


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA000717P

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated, healthy males. All individuals were of European Russian descent. The sample was collected in the Tomsk region of Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 244

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Stepanov VA, Puzyrev VP, Karpov RS, Kutmin AI "Genetic markers in coronary artery disease in a Russian population". Hum Biol 70:47-57. (1998)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Oshevensk

Sample UID: SA000761O

Sample Description:This sample is from a population from the Arkhangelsk region of north Russia where external influences are very slight. They represent the Indo-European language family. This sample was collected with informed consent. All individuals were unrelated and healthy with three generations living in the region.

Number of Chromosomes: 156

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Verbenko DA, Pogoda TV, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Bets LV, Bebyakova NA, Ivanov VP, Abolmasov NN, Pocheshkhova EA, Balanovskaya EV, Tarskaya LA, Sorensen MV, Limborska SA. "Apolipoprotein B 3'-VNTR polymorphism in Eastern European populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 11:444-51. . (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kursk

Sample UID: SA000762P

Sample Description:The Kursk is a population from South Russia. They represent the Indo-European language family. This sample was collected with informed consent. All individuals were unrelated and healthy with three generations living in the region.

Number of Chromosomes: 176

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Verbenko DA, Pogoda TV, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Bets LV, Bebyakova NA, Ivanov VP, Abolmasov NN, Pocheshkhova EA, Balanovskaya EV, Tarskaya LA, Sorensen MV, Limborska SA. "Apolipoprotein B 3'-VNTR polymorphism in Eastern European populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 11:444-51. . (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Smolensk

Sample UID: SA000763Q

Sample Description:The Smolensk is a population from Central European Russia. They represent the Indo-European language family. This sample was collected with informed consent. All individuals were unrelated and healthy with three generations living in the region.

Number of Chromosomes: 184

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Verbenko DA, Pogoda TV, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Bets LV, Bebyakova NA, Ivanov VP, Abolmasov NN, Pocheshkhova EA, Balanovskaya EV, Tarskaya LA, Sorensen MV, Limborska SA. "Apolipoprotein B 3'-VNTR polymorphism in Eastern European populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 11:444-51. . (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Novgorod

Sample UID: SA000764R

Sample Description:The Novgorod is a population from Northwestern Russia. They represent the Indo-European language family. This sample was collected with informed consent. All individuals were unrelated and healthy with three generations living in the region.

Number of Chromosomes: 180

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Verbenko DA, Pogoda TV, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Bets LV, Bebyakova NA, Ivanov VP, Abolmasov NN, Pocheshkhova EA, Balanovskaya EV, Tarskaya LA, Sorensen MV, Limborska SA. "Apolipoprotein B 3'-VNTR polymorphism in Eastern European populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 11:444-51. . (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kostroma

Sample UID: SA000765S

Sample Description:The Kostroma is a population from Northeastern Russia. They represent the Indo-European language family. This sample was collected with informed consent. All individuals were unrelated and healthy with three generations living in the region.

Number of Chromosomes: 160

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Verbenko DA, Pogoda TV, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Bets LV, Bebyakova NA, Ivanov VP, Abolmasov NN, Pocheshkhova EA, Balanovskaya EV, Tarskaya LA, Sorensen MV, Limborska SA. "Apolipoprotein B 3'-VNTR polymorphism in Eastern European populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 11:444-51. . (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA000133H

Sample Description:Russians from Perm

Number of Chromosomes: 80

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Hollox EJ, Poulter M, Zvarik M, Ferak V, Krause A, Jenkins T, Saha N, Kozlov AI, Swallow DM. "Lactase Haplotype Diversity in the Old World ". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:160-172. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA000019K

Sample Description:Sample collected by E. Grigorenko from rural communities of ethnic Russians living in the Vologda Administrative Region, about 400 km north of Moscow, roughly 59-61N, 39-41E.

Number of Chromosomes: 96

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html

- Mateu E, Calafell F, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Casals T, Kidd KK, Bertranpetit J. "Allele Frequencies in a Worldwide Survey of a CA Repeat in the First Intron of the CFTR Gene". Human Heredity 49:15-20. (1999) Online citation.

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA001633N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians.

Number of Chromosomes: 224

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yoshiura KI et al. "A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type.". Nat Genet. 38:324-330. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians, HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001510H

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH).

Sample collected by E. Grigorenko from rural communities of ethnic Russians living in the Vologda Administrative Region, about 400 km north of Moscow, roughly 59-61N, 39-41E.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000019K

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW. "Genetic structure of human populations". Science 298:2381-2385. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA001432K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians. Linguistically the Russians belong to the Slovanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

Number of Chromosomes: 116

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kutuev IA, Fatkhlislamova RI, Khidiyatova IM, Khusnutdinova EK. "Analysis of Polymorphisms of the Huntington Disease Gene in Ethnic Populations of the Volga¿Ural Region". Mol Biol 37:818-826. (2003)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA001439R

Sample Description:This sample consists of randomly samples unrelated Russian individuals living in 57 regions of Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 804

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kornienko IV, Vodolazhsky DI, Ivanov PL. "Genetic variation of the nine Profiler Plus loci in Russians". Int J Legal Med. 116:309-311. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA001857V

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from Moscow, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 166

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Libert F, Cochaux P, Beckman G, Samson M, Aksenova M, Cao A, Czeizel A, Claustres M, de la Rua C, Ferrari M, Ferrec C, Glover G, Grinde B, Guran S, Kucinskas V, Lavinha J, Mercier B, Ogur G, Peltonen L, Rosatelli C, Schwartz M, Spitsyn V, Timar L, Beckman L, Parmentier M, Vassart G "The deltaccr5 mutation conferring protection against HIV-1 in Caucasian populations has a single and recent origin in Northeastern Europe". Hum Mol Genet. 7:399-406.. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians, Archangel'sk

Sample UID: SA001530J

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Russians residing at the southwest border of the Arkhangel'sk region of Nothern Russia. This sample was established from a small, relatively isolated population. The area was settled sometime around the 11th and 12th centuries by Novogordians. The population has decreased and increased in size a number of times due to various religious, political, and economical events in the region. Currently, the population has ~900 members.

Number of Chromosomes: 68

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002396U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Vologda oblast. The subjects for this study were the DNA samples from the collection of the Laboratory of Human Histocompatibility Genetics of the Institute of Immunology (Russia). Blood samples were taken from the unrelated anonymous volunteers who gave their informed consent. Data on the birthplace and ethnicity upto two generations were collected.

Number of Chromosomes: 192

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kofiadi IA, Rebrikov DV, Trofimov DY, Alexeev LP, Khaitov RM "Allelic distribution of the CCR5, CCR2, and SDF1 gene polymorphisms associated with HIV-1/AIDS resistance in Russian populations". Dokl Biol Sci. 415:320-3. (2007) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA003782U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Yekaterinburg, Russia. Blood samples were collected during expeditions in 2000-2008. The ethnic origin was defined by direct interview.

Number of Chromosomes: 184

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Dzhemileva LU, Barashkov NA, Posukh OL, Khusainova RI, Akhmetova VL, Kutuev IA, Gilyazova IR, Tadinova VN, Fedorova SA, Khidiyatova IM, Lobov SL, Khusnutdinova EK. "Carrier frequency of GJB2 gene mutations c.35delG, c.235delC and c.167delT among the populations of Eurasia". J Hum Genet. 55:749-54. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians(Chukotka)

Sample UID: SA002834R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Chukotka region, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 58

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaya S, Kal'ina N, Marusin A, Faskhutdinova G, Morozova I, Kutuev I, Koshechkin V, Khusnutdinova E, Stepanov V, Puzyrev V, Yankovsky N, Rogaev E. "Distribution of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*47His allele in Eurasia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:89-92. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians(Bashkortostan)

Sample UID: SA002835S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Bashkortostan, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 198

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaya S, Kal'ina N, Marusin A, Faskhutdinova G, Morozova I, Kutuev I, Koshechkin V, Khusnutdinova E, Stepanov V, Puzyrev V, Yankovsky N, Rogaev E. "Distribution of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*47His allele in Eurasia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:89-92. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA003864V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians.

Number of Chromosomes: 46

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ahn KS, Abdiev S, Rahimov B, Malikov Y, Bahramov S, Okada R, Naito M, Hamajima N. "Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 Polymorphisms in Uzbekistan". Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 10:17-20. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA003089U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from the city of Tomsk.

Number of Chromosomes: 252

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Trifonova EA, Spiridonova MG, Stepanov VA "Genetic diversity and the structure of linkage disequilibrium in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase locus". Genetika. 44:1410-9. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA003195S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians collected from inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

Number of Chromosomes: 82

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ji LD, Xu J, Wu DD, Xie SD, Tang NL, Zhang YP "Association of disease-predisposition polymorphisms of the melatonin receptors and sunshine duration in the global human populations". J Pineal Res. 48:133-141. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Andreapol)

Sample UID: SA003201G

Sample Description:This sample of Andreapol Russians from Tver region, the most western of the Russian populations consists of individuals born in Andreapol, Bologovo village and other nearby villages.

Number of Chromosomes: 218

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Flegontova OV, Khrunin AV, Lylova OI, Tarskaia LA, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Limborska SA. "Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain". BMC Genet. 10:(2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russia (Smolensk)

Sample UID: SA003202H

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Smolensk region, Sychevka, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 234

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Flegontova OV, Khrunin AV, Lylova OI, Tarskaia LA, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Limborska SA. "Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain". BMC Genet. 10:(2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Kursk)

Sample UID: SA003203I

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Kursk region, Ponyri, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 130

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Flegontova OV, Khrunin AV, Lylova OI, Tarskaia LA, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Limborska SA. "Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain". BMC Genet. 10:(2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Ivanovo)

Sample UID: SA003204J

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Ivanovo region,, Puchezh, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 190

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Flegontova OV, Khrunin AV, Lylova OI, Tarskaia LA, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Limborska SA. "Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain". BMC Genet. 10:(2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Archangelsk)

Sample UID: SA003205K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Archangelsk region, Oshevensk, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 142

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Flegontova OV, Khrunin AV, Lylova OI, Tarskaia LA, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Limborska SA. "Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain". BMC Genet. 10:(2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Archangelsk)

Sample UID: SA003206L

Sample Description:The Mezen sample from the Arkhangelsk region, the most northern of the Russian populations sampled, consisted of individuals born in the small towns, Mezen and Kemaenka in Dorogorskoe village and in nearby villages.

Number of Chromosomes: 294

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Flegontova OV, Khrunin AV, Lylova OI, Tarskaia LA, Spitsyn VA, Mikulich AI, Limborska SA. "Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain". BMC Genet. 10:(2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA002086Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of randomly selected Russian immigrants.

Number of Chromosomes: 54

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Hasin D, Aharonovich E, Liu X, Mamman Z, Matseoane K, Carr L, Li TK "Alcohol and ADH2 in Israel: Ashkenazis, Sephardics, and recent Russian immigrants". Am J Psychiatry. 159:1432-4. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA002077Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy inhabitants of Moscow, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ogurtsov PP, Garmash IV, Miandina GI, Guschin AE, Itkes AV, Moiseev VS "Alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2-1 and ADH2-2 allelic isoforms in the Russian population correlate with type of alcoholic disease". Addict Biol. 6:377-383. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA003215L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Rostov-on-Don (Rostov oblast).

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 196

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaia SA, Kal'ina NR, Sanina ED, Kozhekbaeva ZhM, Gupalo EIu, Garmash IV, Ogurtsov PP, Parshukova ON, Boĭko SG, Veselovskiĭ EM, Vershubskaia GG, Kozlov AI, Rogaev EI, Iankovskiĭ NK "Polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) in the populations of Russia and neighboring countries". Genetika. 43:1434-40. (2007) Online citation.

- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Krasnodar)

Sample UID: SA003216M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Krasnodar krai, Russia.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 112

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaia SA, Kal'ina NR, Sanina ED, Kozhekbaeva ZhM, Gupalo EIu, Garmash IV, Ogurtsov PP, Parshukova ON, Boĭko SG, Veselovskiĭ EM, Vershubskaia GG, Kozlov AI, Rogaev EI, Iankovskiĭ NK "Polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) in the populations of Russia and neighboring countries". Genetika. 43:1434-40. (2007) Online citation.

- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Kostroma)

Sample UID: SA003220H

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kostroma Russians from northern Kostroma region.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 158

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaia SA, Kal'ina NR, Sanina ED, Kozhekbaeva ZhM, Gupalo EIu, Garmash IV, Ogurtsov PP, Parshukova ON, Boĭko SG, Veselovskiĭ EM, Vershubskaia GG, Kozlov AI, Rogaev EI, Iankovskiĭ NK "Polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) in the populations of Russia and neighboring countries". Genetika. 43:1434-40. (2007) Online citation.

- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Moscow

Sample UID: SA003221I

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Moscow.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 190

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaia SA, Kal'ina NR, Sanina ED, Kozhekbaeva ZhM, Gupalo EIu, Garmash IV, Ogurtsov PP, Parshukova ON, Boĭko SG, Veselovskiĭ EM, Vershubskaia GG, Kozlov AI, Rogaev EI, Iankovskiĭ NK "Polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) in the populations of Russia and neighboring countries". Genetika. 43:1434-40. (2007) Online citation.

- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002850P

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from the city of Tomsk.

Number of Chromosomes: 252

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Trifonova EA, Spiridonova MG, Stepanov VA "Genetic diversity and the structure of linkage disequilibrium in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase locus". Genetika. 44:1410-9.. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002694V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Bashkortostan.

Number of Chromosomes: 130

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Galeeva AR, Iur'ev EB, Khusnutdinova EK "Polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene in populations of the Volga-Ural region". Genetika. 37:1018-20. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Moscow)

Sample UID: SA002841P

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Moscow.

Number of Chromosomes: 208

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaya S, Kal'ina N, Marusin A, Faskhutdinova G, Morozova I, Kutuev I, Koshechkin V, Khusnutdinova E, Stepanov V, Puzyrev V, Yankovsky N, Rogaev E. "Distribution of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*47His allele in Eurasia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:89-92. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Rostov district)

Sample UID: SA002842Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Rostov district, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 196

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaya S, Kal'ina N, Marusin A, Faskhutdinova G, Morozova I, Kutuev I, Koshechkin V, Khusnutdinova E, Stepanov V, Puzyrev V, Yankovsky N, Rogaev E. "Distribution of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*47His allele in Eurasia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:89-92. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Kursk)

Sample UID: SA002843R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Kursk, Russia.

Number of Chromosomes: 172

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaya S, Kal'ina N, Marusin A, Faskhutdinova G, Morozova I, Kutuev I, Koshechkin V, Khusnutdinova E, Stepanov V, Puzyrev V, Yankovsky N, Rogaev E. "Distribution of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*47His allele in Eurasia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:89-92. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russia

Sample UID: SA002401H

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from St.Petersburg region.

Number of Chromosomes: 74

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Magierowska M, Lepage V, Boubnova L, Carcassi C, de Juan D, Djoulah S, El Chenawi F, Grunnet N, Hallé L, Ivanova R, Jungerman M, Naumova E, Petrany G, Sonnerborg A, Stavropoulos C, Thorsby E, Vu-Trieu A, Debré P, Theodorou I, Charron D "Distribution of the CCR5 gene 32 base pair deletion and SDF1-3'A variant in healthy individuals from different populations". Immunogenetics. 48:417-9. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002674T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Tomsk city(n=125), Seversk city(n=219), and Kargala village(n=158) of Tomsk area.

Number of Chromosomes: 1004

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Marusin AV, Spiridonova MG, Goncharova IA, Kharkov VN, Pel's YR, Stepanov VA "Distribution of the VNTR polymorphism in the 3'-UTR of the DAT1 gene in Russian, Khant and Yakut populations.". 13th International Congress on Circumpolar Health (Abstract) (2006)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Moscow

Sample UID: SA002729U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Moscow who were recruited as controls for a study on aerodigestive disorders. The controls were matched to cases by age, sex, and referral or residence area.

Number of Chromosomes: 1594

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Hashibe M, McKay JD, Curado MP, Oliveira JC, Koifman S, Koifman R, Zaridze D, Shangina O, Wünsch-Filho V, Eluf-Neto J, Levi JE, Matos E, Lagiou P, Lagiou A, Benhamou S et.al. "Multiple ADH genes are associated with upper aerodigestive cancers". Nat Genet. 40:707-9. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA002183O

Sample Description:This Russian sample was drawn from Novosibirsk citizens.

Number of Chromosomes: 106

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yudin NS, Vinogradov SV, Potapova TA, Naykova TM, Sitnikova VV, Kulikov IV, Khasnulin VI, Konchuk C, Vloschinskii PE, Ivanov SV, Kobzev VF, Romaschenko AG, Voevoda MI "Distribution of CCR5-delta 32 gene deletion across the Russian part of Eurasia". Hum Genet. 102:695-8.. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002470N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russian individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Stephens JC, Reich DE, Goldstein DB, Shin HD, Smith MW et.al. "Dating the origin of the CCR5-Delta32 AIDS-resistance allele by the coalescence of haplotypes". Am J Hum Genet. 62:1507-15. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA002131H

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Russian individuals from Kostroma oblast, Russia. Individuals were questioned on the birthplace and ethnic affiliation of the ancestors down to two generations.

Number of Chromosomes: 236

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaya,S; Gasemianrodsari,F; Kalyina,N; Sokolova,M; Yankovsky,N "Polymorphism of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene ADH1B in Eastern Slavic and Iranian-Speaking Populations". Russian Journal of Genetics 41:1291-1294. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians (Kursk)

Sample UID: SA002628S

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from Kursk region of Russia. The places of birth and the ethnicities for two generations of their ancestors were recorded. This sample is from the collection of the Laboratory of Genome Analysis of the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics.

Number of Chromosomes: 224

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- S. A. Borinskaya, D. V. Rebrikov, V. V. Nefedova, I. A. Kofiadi, M. V. Sokolova, E. V. Kolchina, E. A. Kulikova, V. N. Chernyshov, S. I. Kutsev, A. V. Polonikov, V. P. Ivanov, A. I. Kozlov and N. K. Yankovsky "Molecular diagnosis and frequencies of primary hypolactasia in populations of Russia and neighboring countries ". Mol Biol 40:931-935. (2006)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian (Rostov)

Sample UID: SA002629T

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from Rostov region of Russia. The places of birth and the ethnicities for two generations of their ancestors were recorded. This sample is from the collection of the Laboratory of Genome Analysis of the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics.

Number of Chromosomes: 228

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- S. A. Borinskaya, D. V. Rebrikov, V. V. Nefedova, I. A. Kofiadi, M. V. Sokolova, E. V. Kolchina, E. A. Kulikova, V. N. Chernyshov, S. I. Kutsev, A. V. Polonikov, V. P. Ivanov, A. I. Kozlov and N. K. Yankovsky "Molecular diagnosis and frequencies of primary hypolactasia in populations of Russia and neighboring countries ". Mol Biol 40:931-935. (2006)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian (Chukotka)

Sample UID: SA002630L

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from Chukotka, Russia. The places of birth and the ethnicities for two generations of their ancestors were recorded. This sample is from the collection of the Laboratory of Genome Analysis of the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics.

Number of Chromosomes: 52

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- S. A. Borinskaya, D. V. Rebrikov, V. V. Nefedova, I. A. Kofiadi, M. V. Sokolova, E. V. Kolchina, E. A. Kulikova, V. N. Chernyshov, S. I. Kutsev, A. V. Polonikov, V. P. Ivanov, A. I. Kozlov and N. K. Yankovsky "Molecular diagnosis and frequencies of primary hypolactasia in populations of Russia and neighboring countries ". Mol Biol 40:931-935. (2006)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002793V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians residing in Tomsk city. DNA samples were obtained from the DNA bank of the Research Institute of Medical Genetics in Tomsk, Russia. Blood samples were collected from volunteers for 15 years. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Research Institute of Medical Genetics (Tomsk, Russia). Written informed consent was obtained from the volunteers before blood sampling.

Number of Chromosomes: 176

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Makeeva O, Stepanov V, Puzyrev V, Goldstein DB, Grossman I "Global pharmacogenetics: genetic substructure of Eurasian populations and its effect on variants of drug-metabolizing enzymes". Pharmacogenomics. 9:847-68.. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002775V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Moscow.

Number of Chromosomes: 108

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rusakova OS, Garmash IV, Guschin AE, Ogurtsov PP, Moiseev VS "Liver alcoholic cirrhosis and genetic polymorphisms of alcohol oxidative enzymes (ADH2 and ALDH2) and angiotensinogen.". Clinical pharmacology and therapy (in Russian) 14:31-34. (2006)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002420I

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Ryazan oblast, Kostroma oblast, and Kursk oblast. Data on the birth places and the nationality of the relatives in two generations were collected from volunteer donors and informed consent was obtained.

Number of Chromosomes: 206

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kozhekbaeva GM, Borodina TA, Borinskaia SA, Gusar VA, Feshchenko SP, Akhmetova VL, Khusainova RI, Gupalo EIu, Spitsyn VA, Grechanina EIa, Khusnutdinova K, Iankovskiĭ NK. "Distribution of the HIV-1 resistance-conferring alleles (CCR5delta32, CCR2-64I, and SDF1 3'A) in Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian populations". Genetika. 40:1394-401. (2004) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA002242K

Sample Description:This sample were obtained from Russians patients admitted to the Institute of Pulmonary and Cancer center, Moscow. This sample for the study was provided by Dr.A.Tatosyan.

Number of Chromosomes: 352

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Voevodin A, Samilchuk E, Dashti S "A survey for 32 nucleotide deletion in the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene (deltaccr-5) conferring resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in different ethnic groups and in chimpanzees". J Med Virol. 55:147-51. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russia

Sample UID: SA002522L

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from Russia. This sample was collected as part of anthropological surveys of investigation of non-HIV related medical conditions.

Number of Chromosomes: 92

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Martinson JJ, Chapman NH, Rees DC, Liu YT, Clegg JB. "Global distribution of the CCR5 gene 32-basepair deletion". Nat Genet 16:100-103. (1997) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russia

Sample UID: SA002703M

Sample Description:This sample consists of specimens selected from the neonatal screening programme that collects and banks specimens from 54 maternity hospitals in the Moscow area. All selected babies were apparently free from congenital anomalies. This study was conducted under the auspices of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defect Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) and was coordinated through its head office, the International Center on Birth Defects. Local review boards approved the study.In all cases personal identifiers were removed before data were provided to ICBD for epidemiological analysis.

Number of Chromosomes: 1174

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wilcken B, Bamforth F, Li Z, Zhu H, Ritvanen A, Renlund M, Stoll C, Alembik Y, Dott B, Czeizel AE, Gelman-Kohan Z, Scarano G, Bianca S, Ettore G, Tenconi R, Bellato S, Scala I, Mutchinick OM, López MA, de Walle H, Hofstra R, Joutchenko L, Kavteladze L, Bermejo E, Martínez-Frías ML, Gallagher M, Erickson JD, Vollset SE, Mastroiacovo P, Andria G, Botto LD. "Geographical and ethnic variation of the 677C>T allele of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR): findings from over 7000 newborns from 16 areas world wide". J Med Genet. 40:619-25.. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian Starover

Sample UID: SA004603N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russian Starovers, an enigmatic Eastern Orthodox Old Believers religious group relocated to Siberia in seventeenth century. To limit influence of admixture this sample included villagers who reportedly were settled in the sample place for at least three generations (up to grandparents) .This sample is part of the "core" dataset that were genotyped for this study.

Number of Chromosomes: 78

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Triska P, Chekanov N, Stepanov V, Khusnutdinova EK, Kumar GPA, Akhmetova V, Babalyan K, Boulygina E, Kharkov V, Gubina M, Khidiyatova , Khitrinskaya , Khrameeva EE, Khusainova R, Konovalova N, Litvinov S, Marusin A, Mazur AM, Puzyrev V, Ivanoshchuk D, Spiridonova M, Teslyuk A, Tsygankova S, Triska M, Trofimova N, Vajda E, Balanovsky O, Baranova A, Skryabin K, Tatarinova TV, Prokhortchouk E "Between Lake Baikal and the Baltic Sea: genomic history of the gateway to Europe". BMC Genet 18:(2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA004694X

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russian individuals from Vologda. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 94

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA004693W

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russian individuals from Archangelsk. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 66

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian Novosibirsk

Sample UID: SA004601L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Novosibirsk individuals from Russia. To limit influence of admixture this sample included villagers who reportedly were settled in the sample place for at least three generations (up to grandparents) .This sample is part of the "core" dataset that were genotyped for this study.

Number of Chromosomes: 76

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Triska P, Chekanov N, Stepanov V, Khusnutdinova EK, Kumar GPA, Akhmetova V, Babalyan K, Boulygina E, Kharkov V, Gubina M, Khidiyatova , Khitrinskaya , Khrameeva EE, Khusainova R, Konovalova N, Litvinov S, Marusin A, Mazur AM, Puzyrev V, Ivanoshchuk D, Spiridonova M, Teslyuk A, Tsygankova S, Triska M, Trofimova N, Vajda E, Balanovsky O, Baranova A, Skryabin K, Tatarinova TV, Prokhortchouk E "Between Lake Baikal and the Baltic Sea: genomic history of the gateway to Europe". BMC Genet 18:(2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian

Sample UID: SA004205L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from the territory of the Republic of Baskortostan (South Ural region of Russia).

Number of Chromosomes: 638

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Korytina G, Kochetova O, Aksmadishina l, Viktorova E, Victorova T "Polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 genes in three ethnic groups from Russia". Balkan Med journal 29:252-60. (2012)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA004292R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Velkij Novogrod.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rogalla U, Rychlicka E, Derenko MV, Malyarchuk BA, Grzybowski T. "Simple and cost-effective 14-loci SNP assay designed for differentiation of European, East Asian and African samples". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 14:42-9.. (2015) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA004293S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Volot.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rogalla U, Rychlicka E, Derenko MV, Malyarchuk BA, Grzybowski T. "Simple and cost-effective 14-loci SNP assay designed for differentiation of European, East Asian and African samples". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 14:42-9.. (2015) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA004086S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Pocherniaev AK, Tyzhnenko TV, Gorshunskaia MIu, Poltorak VV, Atramentova LA. "Polymorphism of paraoxonase (PON-1) gene in Slavonic part of Kharkiv population". Cytology and Genetics 43:348-351. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA003999E

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from the Bashkortostan Republic.

Number of Chromosomes: 418

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chubukova OV, Mustafina OE, Chemeris AV, Tuktarova IA, Bakhtiiarova KZ, Magzhanov RV, Nikonorov IuM. "Polymorphism of the prion protein PRNP gene and risk of multiple sclerosis development in ethnic Russians from Bashkortostan". Genetika 45:691-9. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russian Archangel'sk

Sample UID: SA004376U

Sample Description:This sample is part of the KiddLab sample collection and is subset of sample SA001530J.

Number of Chromosomes: 42

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA001530J

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians

Sample UID: SA004283R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russians from Pskov.

Number of Chromosomes: 70

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rogalla U, Rychlicka E, Derenko MV, Malyarchuk BA, Grzybowski T. "Simple and cost-effective 14-loci SNP assay designed for differentiation of European, East Asian and African samples". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 14:42-9.. (2015) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Russians in Xinjiang, China (CRX)

Sample UID: SA004660Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Russian individuals in Xinjiang Province,China. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China.

Number of Chromosomes: 24

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

Top


© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan