ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
Europeans, MixedPO000020C

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  70N, 24W; 35N, 56E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: 
References: See references
Population Description: Different samples used in different studies described variously as "caucasian", "US white", etc.
References:


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Non-Hispanic Whites, SLVDS

Sample UID: SA000233I

Sample Description:Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study (SLVDS). The SLVDS was designed to examine non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and was based on a geographic case-control study. The participants were taken from the counties of Alamosa and Conejos in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado. The subjects used in this study were normoglycemic individuals from the SLVDS).

Number of Chromosomes: 912

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chiu L, Hamman RF, Kamboh MI. "Apolipoprotein A Polymorphism and Plasma Lipoprotein(a) Concentrations in Non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics". Hum. Biol. 72:821-835. (2000) Online citation.

- Hamman, R.F., J.A. Marshall, J. Baxter et al. "Methods and prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a biethnic Colorado population". Am. J. Epid. 129:295-311. (1989) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mixed European, Southern California

Sample UID: SA000194O

Sample Description:European American sample of (n=190) volunteers from Southern California, all apparently healthy. Each subject provided a blood sample, after providing informed consent and self-report of his or her ethnicity.

Number of Chromosomes: 380

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Goddard KA, Hopkins PJ, Hall JM, Witte JS. "Linkage Disequilibrium and Allele-Frequency Distributions for 114 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Five Populations ". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66:216-234. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mixed Europeans, South Africa

Sample UID: SA000054J

Sample Description:South Africans of European Ancestry

Number of Chromosomes: 76

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Northern Europeans, unrelated males

Sample UID: SA000122F

Sample Description:This sample is composed of unrelated males, currently living in Utah, whose Northern European ancestries are traces almost exclusively to Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The blood sample were collected at the University of Utah.

Number of Chromosomes: 140

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jorde LB, Bamshad MJ, Watkins WS, Zenger R, Fraley AE, Krakowiak PA, Carpenter KD, Soodyall H, Jenkins T, Rogers AR. "Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:523-538. (1995) Online citation.

- O'Brien E, Rogers AR, Beesley J, Jorde LB. "Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices,isonymy, and pedigrees". Hum. Biol. 66:743-59. (1994) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: White European American, DNA

Sample UID: SA000137L

Sample Description:White European American sample, part of a collection of DNA purified samples from anonymous blood donors in community-based blood drives in southeastern and central Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 154

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Bonnen PE, Story MD, Ashorn CL, Buchholz TA, Weil MM, Nelson DL. "Haplotypes at ATM Identify Coding-Sequence Variation and Indicate a Region of Extensive Linkage Disequilibrium". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:1437-1451. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mixed Europeans, unrelated

Sample UID: SA000052H

Sample Description:European sample Unrelated 11/96

Number of Chromosomes: 108

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mixed Europeans, Unrelated

Sample UID: SA000020C

Sample Description:Collected by K. Kidd from unrelated individuals of European ancestry living in the United States and Canada

Number of Chromosomes: 190

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Castiglione CM, Deinard AS, Speed WC, Sirugo G, Rosenbaum HC, Zhang Y, Grandy DK, Grigorenko EL, Bonne-Tamir B, Pakstis AJ, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Evolution of haplotypes at the DRD2 locus". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:1445-56. (1995) Online citation.

- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd JR, Black FL, Weiss KM, Balazs I, Kidd KK. "Studies of three Amerindian populations using nuclear DNA polymorphisms.". Human Biology 63:775. (1991) Online citation.

- Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "Global levels of DNA variation". Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Human Identification 1993 (Promega) 21-30. (1993)

- Kidd JR. "Population genetics and population history of Amerindians as reflected by nuclear DNA variation". Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University (1993)

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mixed Europeans

Sample UID: SA000053I

Sample Description:Eur.Mixed

Number of Chromosomes: 182

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Northern Europeans, mixed

Sample UID: SA000565Q

Sample Description:This sample is composed of unrelated males, currently living in Utah, whose Northern European ancestries are traces almost exclusively to Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The blood sample were collected at the University of Utah.

Number of Chromosomes: 136

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000122F

References:
- Jorde LB, Bamshad MJ, Watkins WS, Zenger R, Fraley AE, Krakowiak PA, Carpenter KD, Soodyall H, Jenkins T, Rogers AR. "Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:523-538. (1995) Online citation.

- O'Brien E, Rogers AR, Beesley J, Jorde LB. "Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices,isonymy, and pedigrees". Hum. Biol. 66:743-59. (1994) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Caucasian

Sample UID: SA000091K

Sample Description:Caucasian

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rupert JL, Devine DV, Monsalve MV, Hochachka PW. "Beta-fibrinogen allele frequencies in Peruvian Quechua, a high-altitude native population". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 109:181-6. (1999) Online citation.

- Rupert JL, Kidd KK, Norman LE, Monsalve MV, Hochachka PW, Devine DV. "Genetic polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system in high-altitude and low-altitude Native American populations". Ann Hum Genet 67:17-25. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: South African, Caucasian

Sample UID: SA001372N

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Caucasians from South Africa. The approximate admixture was calculated to be 93% European and 7% non-European (half Southern African and half Asian genes).

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Liu Y, Koda Y, Soejima M, Pang H, Schlaphoff T, du Toit ED, Kimura H. "Extensive polymorphism of the FUT2 gene in an African (Xhosa) population of South Africa". Hum Genet. 103:204-210. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: European

Sample UID: SA001775U

Sample Description:This sample consists of undergraduate students attending the State University of New York at Binghamton (Vestal, NY, USA). All subjects were wasked the ancestry of their four grandparents. Only those subjects who said they had four all European descendant grandparents were included.

Number of Chromosomes: 148

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Eisenberg DTA, Campbell B, MacKillop J, Modi M, Dang D, Lum JK, Wilson DS "Polymorphisms in the Dopamine D2 and D4 Receptor Genes and Reproductive, Sexual and Life History Behaviors". Evolutionary Psychology 5:696-715. (2007)

- Eisenberg DTA, Campbell B, Mackillop J, Lum JK, Wilson DS. "Season of birth and dopamine receptor gene associations with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors". PLoS ONE. 2:e1216. (2007) Online citation.

- Eisenberg DTA, Mackillop J, Modi M, Beauchemin J, Dang D, Lisman SA, Lum JK, Wilson DS "Examining impulsivity as an endophenotype using a behavioral approach: a DRD2 TaqI A and DRD4 48-bp VNTR association study". Behav Brain Funct. 10:2. (2007) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: White

Sample UID: SA001758V

Sample Description:This sampel consists of white individuals. Individuals were of mixed ages and both sexes and were recruited at the Wellington Blood Transfusion Service. A short questionnaire was used to screen out individuals with substantially admixed ancestry or with a family history of alcoholism.

Number of Chromosomes: 70

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chambers GK, Marshall SJ, Robinson GM, Maguire S, Newton-Howes J, Chong NL. "The genetics of alcoholism in Polynesians: alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes in young men". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 26:949-955. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: White Caucasian

Sample UID: SA003458U

Sample Description:This sample consists of White Caucasians.

Number of Chromosomes: 402

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Dixon LA, Murray CM, Archer EJ, Dobbins AE, Koumi P, Gill P. "Validation of a 21-locus autosomal SNP multiplex for forensic identification purposes". Forensic Sci Int. 154:62-77. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Caucasoid

Sample UID: SA003560O

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated UK Caucasoid control subjects selected from general medical practice registers.

Number of Chromosomes: 182

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Fujihara J, Yasuda T, Kawai Y, Morikawa N, Arakawa K, Koda Y, Soejima M, Kimura-Kataoka K, Takeshita H. "First survey of the three gene polymorphisms (PON1 Q192R, eNOS E298D and eNOS C-786T) potentially associated with coronary artery spasm in African populations and comparison with worldwide data". Cell Biochem Funct. (Epub, ahead of print) (2011) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Europeans mixed (HELENA study)

Sample UID: SA003658W

Sample Description:This sample consists of adolescents who were part of the HELENA(Healthy lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study conducted across Athens, Greece; Dortmund, Germany; Ghent, Belgium; Heraklion, Greece; Lille, France; Pécs, Hungary; Rome, Italy; Stockholm, Sweden; Vienna, Austria; and Zaragoza, Spain.

Number of Chromosomes: 1310

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Labayen I, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Dalongeville J, Jiménez-Pavón D, Castillo MJ, De Henauw S, González-Gross M, Bueno G, Molnar D, Kafatos A, Díaz LE, Meirhaeghe A, Moreno LA. "Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and leptin in European adolescents: a possible link with energy balance control. The HELENA study". Int J Obes (Lond) (Epub, ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Europeans

Sample UID: SA004221J

Sample Description:This sample consists of 262 males from 3 European countries (Warsaw, poland(80), Kharkiv, Ukraine(84) and Sweden (98). This sample is part of the Inuendo study and the sample was collected between 2002-2004. The Swedish participants were from a fisherman's population living in the east coast of the Baltic Sea. The study was approved by the local ethics Committees.

Number of Chromosomes: 524

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ghisari M, Long M, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC. "Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT genes in Greenlandic Inuit and Europeans". Int J Circumpolar Health (Epub) (2013) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Caucasian in Europe(CAU)

Sample UID: SA004403L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Caucasians. This sample was provided by B.Budowle, University of North texas to Caixia Li's group.

Number of Chromosomes: 150

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wei YL, Wei L, Zhao L, Sun QF, Jiang L, Zhang T, Liu HB, Chen JG, Ye J, Hu L, Li CX "A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents". Int J Legal Med. 130:27-37. (2016) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan