ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
Cambodians, KhmerPO000022EKHMERAustro-Asiatic

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  14.5N, 102.5E; 10.5N, 107.5E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources:  The Cambodian Refugees in America Record     Cambodian Americans Record     Cambodian links Record     Khmer Record     Cambodian Refugees in America Record    Encarta: Country Description Record     Khmer Language Profile Record     Cambodian Refugee Admissions to the United States Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The Khmer are Cambodian's major ethnic group. They speak Khmer, an Austro-Asiatic language, which is related to Vietnamese and many small languages of India and Southeast Asia. Their ancestors migrated into the Cambodian area from southeastern China before the first century AD.

The United States' modern Khmer community represents a tremendously large, if not the largest, immigration of people from a single place in such a short period of time (less that one decade). Approximately 140,000 Cambodian refugees had been admitted to the United States in the decade following the end of the Vietnam War (1975). Cambodians had suffered tremendously by the end of the war. However, beginning in 1975, under Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge subjugated the Cambodian population. Approximately, 2 million people died in a period of 4 years. Thousands of Khmer refugees made their way to Thailand in 1979 when Vietnam took over Cambodia. They generally spent 1 to 6 years in refugee camps in before coming to the United States.
References:
- Brown G. "Issues in the Resettlement of Indochinese Refugees". The Journal of Contemporary Social Work 157. (1982)

- Cooke P. "They Cried Until They Could Not See". The New York Times Magazine 6:(1991)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodian

Sample UID: SA000118K

Sample Description:Collected by K. Dumars from individuals born in Cambodia who are now living in Santa Ana, California.

Number of Chromosomes: 24

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jorde LB, Bamshad MJ, Watkins WS, Zenger R, Fraley AE, Krakowiak PA, Carpenter KD, Soodyall H, Jenkins T, Rogers AR. "Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:523-538. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodian Americans

Sample UID: SA000022E

Sample Description:Collected by K. Dumars from individuals born in Cambodia who are now living in Santa Ana, California.

Number of Chromosomes: 52

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Balazs I, Neuweiler J, Gunn P, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Kuhl J, Mingjun L "Human population genetic studies using hypervariable loci. I. Analysis of Assamese, Australian, Cambodian, Caucasian, Chinese and Melanesian populations". Genetics 131:191-98. (1992) Online citation.

- Barr CL, Kidd KK. "Population frequencies of the A1 allele at the dopamine D2 receptor locus". Biol.Psychiatry 34:204. (1993) Online citation.

- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd JR, Black FL, Weiss KM, Balazs I, Kidd KK. "Studies of three Amerindian populations using nuclear DNA polymorphisms.". Human Biology 63:775. (1991) Online citation.

- Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "Global levels of DNA variation". Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Human Identification 1993 (Promega) 21-30. (1993)

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html

- Kidd KK, Morar B, Castiglione CM, Zhao H, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Goldman D, Lee C, Nam YS, Grandy DK, Jenkins T, Kidd JR. "A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus". Hum. Genet. 103:211-27. (1998) Online citation.

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodian

Sample UID: SA000281L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Cambodian individuals speaking an Austro-Asiatic language.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Parra E, Saha N, Soemantri AG, McGarvey ST, Hundrieser J, Shriver MD, Deka R. "Genetic Variation at 9 autosomal Microsatellite Loci in Asian and Pacific Populations". Hum. Biol. 71:757-779. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodian, HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001500G

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH).

Collected by K. Dumars from individuals born in Cambodia who are now living in Santa Ana, California.

Note: In many publications subset H952 of the HGDP panel (with first and second degree relatives excluded from the original set)/ H971 subset with only the first degree relatives excluded was typed and for this population that decreases the sample size from 11 to 10 individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 22

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000022E

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW. "Genetic structure of human populations". Science 298:2381-2385. (2002) Online citation.

- Rosenberg NA. "Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.". Ann Hum Genet. 70:841-847. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodians

Sample UID: SA003715Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Cambodian individuals. The DNA samples were provided by Kenneth and Judith Kidd, Yale School of medicine.

Number of Chromosomes: 10

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000022E

References:
- Jorde LB, Bamshad MJ, Watkins WS, Zenger R, Fraley AE, Krakowiak PA, Carpenter KD, Soodyall H, Jenkins T, Rogers AR. "Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:523-538. (1995) Online citation.

- Xing J, Watkins WS, Shlien A, Walker E, Huff CD, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Simonson TS, Weiss RB, Schiffman JD, Malkin D, Woodward SR, Jorde LB. "Toward a more uniform sampling of human genetic diversity: a survey of worldwide populations by high-density genotyping". Genomics 96:199-210. (2010) Online citation.

- Xing J, Watkins WS, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Guthery SL, Thara R, Mowry BJ, Bulayeva K, Weiss RB, Jorde LB. "Fine-scaled human genetic structure revealed by SNP microarrays". Genome Res. 19:815-25. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodians

Sample UID: SA003887A

Sample Description:This sample consists of Cambodians. The protocol of the study was approved by the institutional review board of Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

Number of Chromosomes: 34

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Peng Y, Shi H, Qi XB, Xiao CJ, Zhong H, Ma RL, Su B. "The ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism in east Asian populations and expansion of rice domestication in history". BMC Evol Biol 10:15. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodians

Sample UID: SA003967Z

Sample Description:This sample is the subset of the Kidd Lab sample SA000022E. Collected by K. Dumars from individuals born in Cambodia who are now living in Santa Ana, California.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of Sample SA000022E

References:
- Publication pending


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodian

Sample UID: SA002934S

Sample Description:This sample consists of male Cambodian individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 38

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shi H, Tan SJ, Zhong H, Hu W, Levine A, Xiao CJ, Peng Y, Qi XB, Shou WH, Ma RL, Li Y, Su B, Lu X "Winter temperature and UV are tightly linked to genetic changes in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway in Eastern Asia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:534-41.. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Khmer

Sample UID: SA002384R

Sample Description:This sample of neonates recruited in a maternity hospital and a clinic in the capital, Phnom Penh.

Number of Chromosomes: 340

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rousset D, Soares JL, Reynes JM, Caruz A, Flye Sainte Marie F, Virelizier JL. "High frequency of the 3'A mutation of the SDF-1 gene in Cambodia". AIDS 13:420-1. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodians

Sample UID: SA002336O

Sample Description:This sample consists of cambodians from Cambodia.

Number of Chromosomes: 56

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Su B, Jin L, Hu F, Xiao J, Luo J, Lu D, Zhang W, Chu J, Du R, Geng Z, Qiu X, Xue J, Tan J, O'Brien SJ, Chakraborty R "Distribution of two HIV-1-resistant polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A and CCR2-64I) in East Asian and world populations and its implication in AIDS epidemiology". Am J Hum Genet. 65:1047-53. (1999) Online citation.

- Su B, Sun G, Lu D, Xiao J, Hu F, Chakraborty R, Deka R, Jin L "Distribution of three HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A, CCR2-641, and CCR5-delta32) in global populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 8:975-9. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodians

Sample UID: SA004384T

Sample Description:This sample is part of Kidd Lab sample collection and is subset of sample SA000022E.

Number of Chromosomes: 30

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000022E

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Cambodian

Sample UID: SA004716S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Cambodian individuals from Southeast Asia. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan