ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
Pima, ArizonaPO000033GO'ODHAMUto-Aztecan

Geographic Location1:  34N, 112.5W; 33N, 111W  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources:  Fighting the Thrifty Gene Record     Tepiman family Record     Council Indian Nations: Pima Record     The Rise and Fall of Native American Farming Record    Ethnologue: Language Map Record     Salt River Pima Community Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record     obesity and diabetes Record     Pima Indians Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The Pima Alto, also known as the Akimel O'Odham and the "River Pima", are an Amerindian group of about 14,000 individuals currently residing on several reservations along the Salt and Gila rivers in the vicinity of Phoenix, Arizona. A closely related group, the Papago, or Tohono O'Odham, speak a dialect of the same language and live to the south of the Pima, in the vicinity of Tucson. The Pima language is part of the Uto-Aztecan language family and is still widely used among the Pima and their Papago neighbors: there are about 12,000 speakers in both tribes. The Arizona Pima believe their ancestors to be a prehistoric native American group, the Hohokam. This groups farmed the area hundreds of years ago but seem to have disappeared, probably due to flooding. The Pima traditionally lived in small villages, subsisting through irrigation-farming, and a few thousand Pima continue to farm. The majority, however, have adapted to urban life.
- Seymour DJ "Finding history in the archaeological record: the upper Piman settlement of Guevavi ". Kiva 62:245-60. . (1997)

Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Arizona Pima

Sample UID: SA000025H

Sample Description:Arizona Pima sample collected by W. Knowler from individuals in the Phoenix, Arizona area.

Number of Chromosomes: 104

Relation to Other Samples:

- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd KK et al.

- Kidd KK, Morar B, Castiglione CM, Zhao H, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Goldman D, Lee C, Nam YS, Grandy DK, Jenkins T, Kidd JR. "A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus". Hum. Genet. 103:211-27. (1998) Online citation.

- Knowler WC, Bennet PH, Hamman RF, Miller M. "Diabetes incidence and prevalence in Pima Indians: a 19-fold greater incidence than in Rochester, Minnesota". Am. J. Epidemiology 108:497. (1978) Online citation.

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.

Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Pima Indians

Sample UID: SA001068P

Sample Description:This sample consists of nondiabetic Pima Indians. Subjects were selected from participants in a longitudinal study of diabetes conducted among the residents of the Gila River Indian Community in central Arizona, most of whom are are Pima or Tohono O'odham Indians. Individuals living in the community who are at least five years old are invitied to participate in a standardized health examination every two years. This sample draws from the participant group and all subjects gave informed consent.

Number of Chromosomes: 640

Relation to Other Samples:

- Hanson RL, Ehm MG, Pettitt DJ, Prochazka M, Thompson DB, Timberlake D, Foroud T, Kobes S, Baier L, Burns DK, Almasy L, Blangero J, Garvey WT, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. "An autosomal genomic scan for loci linked to type II diabetes mellitus and body-mass index in Pima Indians". Am J Hum Genet. 63:1130-1138. (1998) Online citation.

- Tataranni PA, Baier L, Jenkinson C, Harper I, Del Parigi A, Bogardus C. "A Ser311Cys mutation in the human dopamine receptor D2 gene is associated with reduced energy expenditure". Diabetes 50:901-904. (2001) Online citation.

Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Pimas

Sample UID: SA003672S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Pimas from USA. Pimas belong to Uto-Aztecan /Southern Uto-Aztecan/Pimic/Pima-Papago (Upper Piman) linguistic classification.

Number of Chromosomes: 5126

Relation to Other Samples:

- Acuņa-Alonzo V et al. "A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans". Hum Mol Genet 19:2877-85. (2010) Online citation.

Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Pima Indians

Sample UID: SA003669Y

Sample Description:This sample is part of an ongoing longitudinal study of the etiology of type 2 diabetes in the Gila River Indian Community in Central Arizona. This sample includes the non-diabetic full heritage Pima Indian subjects.

Number of Chromosomes: 3880

Relation to Other Samples:

- Rong R, Hanson RL, Ortiz D, Wiedrich C, Kobes S, Knowler WC, Bogardus C, Baier LJ. "Association analysis of variation in/near FTO, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, HHEX, EXT2, IGF2BP2, LOC387761, and CDKN2B with type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in Pima Indians". Diabetes. 58:478-88. (2009) Online citation.

1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.


© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan