ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
YorubaPO000036JYORUBANiger-Congo

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  10N, 2E; 6N, 8E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Map Record    Ethnologue: Country Description Record    African Art Museum: Tribal Map Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record    
References: See references
Population Description: There are 20 million Yoroba (1993 est.) living primarily in the southwestern region of Nigeria and in Benim forming the largest ethnic group (20% of the population). The Yoruba language is part of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language group and one of Nigeria's official languages. The language itself is probably 5000 years old. Archaeological evidence shows these people to have used iron tools to make farmland about 2000 years ago. Modern Yoruba live in densely settled city-states, a way of life that dates back at least 1000 years. There is speculation that the first Yoruba kingdom was in Ife where there is evidence of organized culture between the 9th and 12th century. In the 17th century, Oyo was a strong kingdom until civil war broke out and in the 1830s the Fulani invaded and pushed the Yoruba south. In 1901 the British colonized the Yoruba.

Yoroba people have a complex religion with over 400 deities. Their high god is Olorun. The Yoruba believe that when they die they enter the realm of the ancestors and still have influence on earth. There have been many twin studies done on the Yoruba people due to the unusually high percentage of twin births.
References:
- Adebo SO "The tribal system in Africa, as explained by the chief of the Nigerian Yorubas". Bantu 11:174-6. (1964)

- Krapf-Askari E "Time and classifications - an ethnographic and historical case-study [of the Yoruba] ". Odu NS. 2:3-18. (1966)

- Lloyd PC "Agnatic and cognatic descent among the Yoruba". Man NS. 1:484-500. (1966)

- Margetts EL "Traditional Yoruba healers in Nigeria". Man 65:115-18. (1965)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Yoruba

Sample UID: SA000036J

Sample Description:Most of the Yoruba individuals in this sample are urban health care workers from Benin City, Nigeria, collected by Prof. Friday E. Okonofua and collaborators; cell lines established by Dr. J.R. Kidd.

Number of Chromosomes: 156

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Yoruba

Sample UID: SA000082K

Sample Description:Yoruba sample collected by Dr. Elizabeth Watson, used in Tishkoff et al. CD4 paper.

Number of Chromosomes: 44

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Yoruba

Sample UID: SA001805O

Sample Description:Most of the Yoruba individuals in this sample are urban health care workers from Benin City, Nigeria, collected by Prof. Friday E. Okonofua and collaborators; cell lines established by Dr. J.R. Kidd.

This sample is a subset of SA000036J

Number of Chromosomes: 64

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000036J

References:
- Verdu P, Barreiro LB, Patin E, Gessain A, Cassar O, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Behar DM, Froment A, Heyer E, Sica L, Casanova J-L, Abel L, Quintana-Murci L. "Evolutionary Insights into the High Worldwide Prevalence of MBL2 Deficiency Alleles". Hum Mol Genet. 15:2650-2658. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Yoruba (YRI)

Sample UID: SA002087R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Yoruba individuals from Ibadan, Nigeria. Population membership was done by asking the donor whether all four grandparents were Yoruba.

Number of Chromosomes: 240

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- The International HapMap Consortium. "The International HapMap Project.". Nature. 426:789-96. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Yoruba, HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001468T

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH).

Most of the Yoruba individuals in this sample are urban health care workers from Benin City, Nigeria, collected by Prof. Friday E. Okonofua and collaborators; cell lines established by Dr. J.R. Kidd.

Note: In many publications subset H952 of the HGDP panel (with first and second degree relatives excluded from the original set) and subset H971 (only the first degree relatives excluded) was typed and for this population that decreases the sample size from 25 to 22 individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000036J

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW. "Genetic structure of human populations". Science 298:2381-2385. (2002) Online citation.

- Rosenberg NA. "Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.". Ann Hum Genet. 70:841-847. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Yoruba

Sample UID: SA003181N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Yoruba individuals. The study was carried out according to the Declaration of Helsinki (2000)of the World Medical Association. Informed consent was obtained from all individuals. Ethnicity was assigned based on the submission that parents and grandparents of the volunteers were of the same self-identified ethnic group. The DNA of these samples are stored in the AiBST Biobank of African Populations.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Matimba A, Del-Favero J, Van Broeckhoven C, Masimirembwa C "Novel variants of major drug-metabolising enzyme genes in diverse African populations and their predicted functional effects". Hum Genomics. 3:169-90. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI)

Sample UID: SA004048Q

Sample Description:This sample was collected in a particular community in Ibadan, Nigeria. All of the samples are from parent-adult child trios. All parents in the trios identified themselves as having four Yoruba grandparents.

This sample is part of 1000 Genomes Collection.

Number of Chromosomes: 216

Relation to Other Samples: Sameset as SA002087R

References:
- 1000 genomes phase1 samples data Online citation.

- 1000genomes project samples page Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: YRI_Hapmap

Sample UID: SA004360N

Sample Description:

Number of Chromosomes: 120

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA002087R

References:
- Xing J, Watkins WS, Shlien A, Walker E, Huff CD, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Simonson TS, Weiss RB, Schiffman JD, Malkin D, Woodward SR, Jorde LB. "Toward a more uniform sampling of human genetic diversity: a survey of worldwide populations by high-density genotyping". Genomics 96:199-210. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Yoruba

Sample UID: SA004683V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Yoruba individuals from West Africa. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by Kenneth K. Kiddâ¿¿s laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 176

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan