ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
Bantu speakersPO000041FNIGER-CONGO

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  37N, 18W; 35S, 51E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Kenyaweb.com: Bantus Record    Ethnologue: Language Family Tree Record     The Bantu Record     The Living Africa: Bantu Record     Comparative Bantu OnLine Dictionary Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The word "Bantu" is a broad term that refers to people who are categorized as linguistic group, not an ethnic group. There are hundreds of Bantu languages that are spoken by approximately 120 million Africans. The Bantu-speaking people have their origins in Cameroon. It was from this location, approximately 3000 years ago, that a massive human migration began. The migration lasted almost 1,800 years, continuing well through the first millennium AD. During this migration the Bantu-speaking population split to become two major language families: Eastern and Western Bantu. The Eastern Bantu-speaking populations (which include groups such as the Xhosa, Zulu, Kikuyu, and Shona) migrated to Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and through South Africa. The Western Bantu-speaking populations (which include groups such as the Herero and Tonga) migrated into Angola, Namibia, and parts of Botswana. These migrations were very significant because these groups spread iron-smelting and agricultural techniques throughout the continent. Agriculture led to the development of villages throughout Africa.
References:
- Cavalli-Sforza L, Menozzi P, Piazza A. "The History and Geography of Human Genes". (1994)

- Vansina J. "New Linguistic Evidence and 'the Bantu Expansion'". The Journal of African History 36:173-195. (1995)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu speakers

Sample UID: SA000076N

Sample Description:Sub Bantu speakers 1 (sample used in CD4 studies)

Number of Chromosomes: 90

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu-speakers, South Africa

Sample UID: SA000134I

Sample Description:Bantu-speaking South Africans living in and around Johannesburg

Number of Chromosomes: 72

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Hollox EJ, Poulter M, Wang Y, Krause A, Swallow DM. "Common polymorphism in a highly variable region upstream of the human lactase gene affects DNA-protein interactions". Eur J Hum Genet 7:791-800. (1999) Online citation.

- Hollox EJ, Poulter M, Zvarik M, Ferak V, Krause A, Jenkins T, Saha N, Kozlov AI, Swallow DM. "Lactase Haplotype Diversity in the Old World ". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:160-172. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: South African, Random

Sample UID: SA000070H

Sample Description:Random South African sample (sample used in CD4 and/or DM studies)

Number of Chromosomes: 408

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu-speakers

Sample UID: SA000041F

Sample Description:Bantu speakers

Number of Chromosomes: 104

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Osier MV, Pakstis AJ, Soodyall H, Comas D, Goldman D, Odunsi A, Okonofua F, Parnas J, Schulz LO, Bertranpetit J, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "A global perspective on genetic variation at the ADH genes reveals unusual patterns of linkage disequilibrium and diversity". Am J Hum Genet 71:84-99. (2002) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Pakstis AJ, Stoneking M, Kidd JR, Destro-Bisol G, Sanjantila A, Lu RB, Deinard AS, Sirugo G, Jenkins T, Kidd KK, Clark AG. "Short tandem-repeat polymorphism/alu haplotype variation at the PLAT locus: implications for modern human origins". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:901-25. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu speakers, HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001470M

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH). This sample consists of unrelated individuals and was collected with proper informed consent.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW. "Genetic structure of human populations". Science 298:2381-2385. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: South African Bantu

Sample UID: SA001706O

Sample Description:This sample consists of paternally unrelated South African Bantu men.

Number of Chromosomes: 138

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Nadkarni NA, Weale ME, von Schantz M, Thomas MG. "Evolution of a length polymorphism in the human PER3 gene, a component of the circadian system". J Biol Rhythms. 20:490-499. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu (southern Africa), HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001818S

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH). It includes the following individuals: #993, 994, 1028, 1030, 1031, 1033, 1034, and 1035. This sample consists of unrelated Bantu speakers from southern Africa and was collected with proper informed consent.

This sample is a subset of SA001470M.

Number of Chromosomes: 16

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA001470M

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Mahajan S, Ramachandran S, Zhao C, Pritchard JK, Feldman MW. "Clines, clusters, and the effect of study design on the inference of human population structure". PLoS Genet. e70. (2005)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu (Kenya), HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001819T

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH). This sample consists of unrelated individuals and was collected with proper informed consent.

This sample is subset of SA001470M.

Note: In many publications subset H952 of the HGDP panel (with first and second degree relatives excluded from the original set) was typed and for this population that decreases the sample size from 12 to 11 individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 24

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA001470M

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Mahajan S, Ramachandran S, Zhao C, Pritchard JK, Feldman MW. "Clines, clusters, and the effect of study design on the inference of human population structure". PLoS Genet. e70. (2005)

- Rosenberg NA. "Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.". Ann Hum Genet. 70:841-847. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu (Kenya)

Sample UID: SA001840N

Sample Description:This samples consists of healthy, unrelated Bantu individuals from Kenya.

Number of Chromosomes: 80

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Terreros MC, Martinez L, Herrera RJ. "Polymorphic Alu insertions and genetic diversity among African populations". Hum Biol. 77:675-704. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu

Sample UID: SA003160K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Bantu individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 88

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Schneider JA, Rees DC, Liu YT, Clegg JB. "Worldwide distribution of a common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation". Am J Hum Genet. 62:1258-60. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantou

Sample UID: SA002412J

Sample Description:This sample consists of bantou individuals from Zaire.

Number of Chromosomes: 140

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Magierowska M, Lepage V, Boubnova L, Carcassi C, de Juan D, Djoulah S, El Chenawi F, Grunnet N, Hallé L, Ivanova R, Jungerman M, Naumova E, Petrany G, Sonnerborg A, Stavropoulos C, Thorsby E, Vu-Trieu A, Debré P, Theodorou I, Charron D "Distribution of the CCR5 gene 32 base pair deletion and SDF1-3'A variant in healthy individuals from different populations". Immunogenetics. 48:417-9. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tanzanian Mixed Bantu

Sample UID: SA003182O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Tanzanian Mixed Bantu individuals. The study was carried out according to the Declaration of Helsinki (2000)of the World Medical Association. Informed consent was obtained from all individuals. Ethnicity was assigned based on the submission that parents and grandparents of the volunteers were of the same self-identified ethnic group. The DNA of these samples are stored in the AiBST Biobank of African Populations.

Number of Chromosomes: 24

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Matimba A, Del-Favero J, Van Broeckhoven C, Masimirembwa C "Novel variants of major drug-metabolising enzyme genes in diverse African populations and their predicted functional effects". Hum Genomics. 3:169-90. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Bantu from South Africa

Sample UID: SA004539V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Bantu speaking South African Xhosa and Zulu individuals.This sample was typed by the participating laboratory as part of the collaborative exercise by International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) working commission on autosomal indels for human identification. This study was approved by vote at the GHEP-ISFG general meeting and complies with the ethical principles of the 2000 Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association. The samples used in this collaborative exercise were anonymised DNA extracts previously obtained from healthy unrelated individuals who consented to participate in this study under strictly confidential conditions.

Number of Chromosomes: 534

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Pereira R, Alves C, Aler M, Amorim A, ArAvalo C, Betancor E, Braganholi D, Bravo ML, Brito P, Builes JJ, Burgos G, Carvalho EF, Castillo A, Catanesi CI, Cicarelli RMB, Coufalova P, Dario P, D'Amato ME, Davison S, Ferragut J, Fondevila M, Furfuro S, Garcia O, Gaviria A, Gomes I, Gonzalez E, Gonzalez-Linan A, Gross TE, Hernanndez A, Huang Q, Jimenez S, Jobim LF, Lopez-Parra AM, Marino M, Marques S, Marti­nez-Cortes G, Masciovecchio V, Parra D, Penacino G, Pinheiro MF, Porto M, Posada Y, Restrepo C, Ribeiro T, Rubio L, Sala A, Santurtun A, Soli­s LS, Souto L, Streitemberger E, Torres A, Vilela-Lamego C, Yunis JJ, Yurrebaso I, Gusmao L. "A GHEP-ISFG collaborative study on the genetic variation of 38 autosomal indels for human identification in different continental populations". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 32:18-25. (2017) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

Top


© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan