ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
MicronesiansPO000063JMALAYO-POLYNESIANAustronesian

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  15N, 135E; 0, 165E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Family Tree Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The population size of the Federated States of Micro is estimated to be about 110,000 people. The languages spoken are Malayo-Polynesian of both the Eastern and western branches of the Austonesian language family. Micronesia was probably settled by peoples from Melanesia about 3,000 years ago.
References:
- Lum LK, Cann R. "mtDNA lineage analyses: origins and migrations of Micronesians and Polynesians". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 113:151-68. (1998)

- Lum LK. "mtDNA and language support [:] a common origin of Micronesians and Polynesians in island southeast Asia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 105:109-19. (1998)

- Mitchell R. "Oral tradition and Micronesian history: a microcosmic approach". Journal of Pacific History 5:33-41. (1970)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Micronesia, unrelated

Sample UID: SA000063J

Sample Description:Unrelated individuals from several different islands in Micronesia. Many individuals have grandparents originating from different islands; a few individuals have a non-Micronesian grandfather, usually Japanese or European. This sample was collected by D. Upson and S. Williams.

Number of Chromosomes: 78

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kiribati

Sample UID: SA001205I

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the Micronesian group of Kiribati.

Number of Chromosomes: 106

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chen LZ, Easteal S, Board PG, Kirk RL. "Evolution of beta-globin haplotypes in human populations". Mol Biol Evol. 7:423-437. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Nauru

Sample UID: SA001206J

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the Micronesian group of Nauru.

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chen LZ, Easteal S, Board PG, Kirk RL. "Evolution of beta-globin haplotypes in human populations". Mol Biol Evol. 7:423-437. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Micronesians

Sample UID: SA003977A

Sample Description:This sample is the subset of the Kidd lab Micronesian sample. Unrelated individuals from several different islands in Micronesia. Many individuals have grandparents originating from different islands; a few individuals have a non-Micronesian grandfather, usually Japanese or European. This sample was collected by D. Upson and S. Williams.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000063J

References:
- Publication pending


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Rawaki

Sample UID: SA003651P

Sample Description:This sample consists of Austronesian speaking Micronesian population from Rawaki village. Rawaki village is located on New Georgia Islands, but Rawaki villagers are Austronesian speaking Micronesians who migrated from the Gilbert Islands, Kribati to the New Georgia Islands about 30 years ago. Hence in this publication the Rawaki villagers were regarded as Micronesians.

Number of Chromosomes: 192

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ohashi J, Naka I, Kimura R, Natsuhara K, Yamauchi T, Furusawa T, Nakazawa M, Ataka Y, Patarapotikul J, Nuchnoi P, Tokunaga K, Ishida T, Inaoka T, Matsumura Y, Ohtsuka R. "FTO polymorphisms in oceanic populations". J Hum Genet. 52:1031-5. (2007) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Micronesians

Sample UID: SA002217M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Micronesians from Guam.

Number of Chromosomes: 42

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Lu Y, Nerurkar VR, Dashwood WM, Woodward CL, Ablan S, Shikuma CM, Grandinetti A, Chang H, Nguyen HT, Wu Z, Yamamura Y, Boto WO, Merriwether A, Kurata T, Detels R, Yanagihara R "Genotype and allele frequency of a 32-base pair deletion mutation in the CCR5 gene in various ethnic groups: absence of mutation among Asians and Pacific Islanders". Int J Infect Dis. 3:186-91. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Micronesian, Pacific Ocean

Sample UID: SA004720N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Micronesian individuals from the pacific ocean (Oceania). Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 44

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Micronesians

Sample UID: SA004382R

Sample Description:This sample is part of Kidd Lab sample collection and is subset of sample SA000063J.

Number of Chromosomes: 66

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000063J

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Truk Lagoon

Sample UID: SA004518S

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from Truk Lagoon island. Truk Lagoon is a sheltered body of water in central Pacific and is part of Chuuk State within the Federated States of Micronesia. The recent name is Chuuk Lagoon. This sample was obtained by George Washington University (GWU)

Number of Chromosomes: 62

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Santos C, Phillips C, Fondevila M, Daniel R, van Oorschot RAH, Burchard EG, Schanfield MS, Souto L, Uacyisrael J, Via M, Carracedo Á, Lareu MV "Pacifiplex: an ancestry-informative SNP panel centred on Australia and the Pacific region". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 20:71-80. (2016) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan