ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
QuechuaPO000069PQUECHUA, CUZCOQuechuan

Synonyms: Quichua ; Kichwa ;
Geographic Location1:  14S, 73W; 13S, 71W  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Description Record     Les ethnies de la Grande Amazonie Record     Quechua Culture Record    Ethnologue: Language Map Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The Quechuan language and culture originated in central Peru. From there it spread down the Andes as a trade language over a thousand years before the establishment of the Inca Empire in the mid-1400s. Quechuan was the official language of the Inca Empire who governed much of the Andes region until the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in 1532. The Inca Capital was Cuzco where the Quechuan culture can still be found.

In the century after the arrival of the Europeans, a huge population crash of pre-Columbian indigenous populations that caused a post-colonial bottleneck is very likely. No accurate statistics are available as to the magnitute of the "crash." However, estimates are as high as a 93% decrease in Andean populations during the 16th century.

In their domination of the Incas, the Spanish banned both the Quechuan language and culture. The Spanish colonies eventually rebelled against Spain in the 1820s; they succeeded in establishing themselves as independent colonies. However, the Quechuan people continued to live very difficult lives. The Quechuan people have built bridges and roads throughout the Andes. They have also developed sophisticated farming techniques to adapt to the varied Andean landscape. The social-system of the Quechuan people is based on reciprocity, with an emphasis on community. Traditional religious practices include the ceremonial use of coca leaf and pilgrimages to sacred mountains. The population of Cuzco Quechuan speakers was approximately 1,500,000 as of 1989.
References:
- Cook ND. "Demographic collapse, Indian Peru, 1520-1620". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1981)

- Hornberger NH. "Language ideology in Quechua communities of Puno, Peru". Anthropological Linguistics 30:214-35. (1988)

- Mar JM. "Taquilenos, Quechuas from Lake Titicaca, in Lima". America Indigena 51:111-66. (1991)

- Ubelaker DH. "Prehistoric New World population size: Historical review and current appraisal of North American estimates". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 45:661-665. (1976)

- de Meer K. "Differences in physical growth of Aymara and Quechua children living at high altitude in Peru". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 90:59-75. (1993)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Quechua

Sample UID: SA000731L

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals. The individuals are of both sexes and are of a Quechua ethnic background. The Quechua in this sample are from the province of Dalence, Department of Oruro (Bolivia).

Number of Chromosomes: 226

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gene M, Fuentes M, Huguet E, Pique E, Bert F, Corella A, Perez-Perez A, Corbella J, Moreno P "Quechua Amerindian population characterized by HLA-DQalpha, YNZ22, 3'APO B, HUMTH01, and HUMVWA31A polymorphisms.". J Forensic Sci. 43:403-405. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Peruvian Quechua

Sample UID: SA000103E

Sample Description:Sample of Quechua-speakers.

Number of Chromosomes: 208

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rupert JL, Devine DV, Monsalve MV, Hochachka PW. "Beta-fibrinogen allele frequencies in Peruvian Quechua, a high-altitude native population". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 109:181-6. (1999) Online citation.

- Rupert JL, Kidd KK, Norman LE, Monsalve MV, Hochachka PW, Devine DV. "Genetic polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system in high-altitude and low-altitude Native American populations". Ann Hum Genet 67:17-25. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Quechua-speaking, Tayacaja

Sample UID: SA000431I

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated Quechua-speaking males who were born and are residents of the Tayacaja province. They belong mainly to farming communities that were settled in the region before the arrival of the Spaniards. The participants parents are also native to the Tayacaja province. The Tayacaja province is located in the Peruvian Central Andes in South America.

Number of Chromosomes: 282

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Luiselli D, Simoni L, Tarazona-Santos E, Pastor S, Pettener D. "Genetic structure of Quechua-speakers of the Central Andes and geographic patterns of gene frequencies in South Amerindian populations". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 113:5-17. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Peruvian Quechuan

Sample UID: SA000069P

Sample Description:This sample was collected with informed consent in Lima, Peru, from individuals who lived in the more remote Andes and were judged by a local anthropologist to be typical Quechuan speakers. This sample was collected by L.Giuffra (Washington University). Transformed cell lines were established at Yale.

Number of Chromosomes: 46

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kichwas

Sample UID: SA001947V

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy unrelated Amerindian Kichwas born and living in Ecuador.

Number of Chromosomes: 230

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gonzalez-Andrade F, Sanchez-Q D, Martinez-Jarreta B. "Genetic analysis of the Amerindian Kichwas and Afroamerican descendents populations from Ecuador characterised by 15 STR-PCR polymorphisms". Forensic Sci Int. 160:231-235. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Quechua

Sample UID: SA001677V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Quechua sampled in Lima (9 individuals) or Cerro de Pasco (11 individuals), Peru.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shriver MD, Mei R, Parra EJ, Sonpar V, Halder I, Tishkoff SA, Schurr TG, Zhadanov SI, Osipova LP, Brutsaert TD, Friedlaender J, Jorde LB, Watkins WS, Bamshad MJ, Gutierrez G, Loi H, Matsuzaki H, Kittles RA, Argyropoulos G, Fernandez JR, Akey JM, Jones KW. "Large-scale SNP analysis reveals clustered and continuous patterns of human genetic variation". Hum Genomics. 2:81-89. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kichwas

Sample UID: SA001802L

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated Kichwas, of both sexes, who had been born and who now live in the highlands of Ecuador.

Number of Chromosomes: 150

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gonzalez-Andrade F, Sanchez D. "Genetic profile of the Kichwas (Quichuas) from Ecuador by analysis of STR loci". Hum Biol. 76:723-730. (2004) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Quechua

Sample UID: SA003708S

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Quechua-speaking males from Tayacaja Province, Peru.

Number of Chromosomes: 52

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Callegari-Jacques SM, Tarazona-Santos EM, Gilman RH, Herrera P, Cabrera L, Dos Santos SE, Morés L, Hutz MH, Salzano FM. "Autosome STRs in native South America-Testing models of association with geography and language". Am J Phys Anthropol. (Epub,ahead of print) (2011) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Quechua

Sample UID: SA003473R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Quechuans from Peru. This sample was provided by John W.Belmont. The subjects studied were all healthy and not first-degree relatives of each other based on self-reporting.

Number of Chromosomes: 52

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kosoy R, Nassir R, Tian C, White PA, Butler LM, Silva G, Kittles R, Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Gregersen PK, Belmont JW, De La Vega FM, Seldin MF. "Ancestry informative marker sets for determining continental origin and admixture proportions in common populations in America". Hum Mutat 30:69-78. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Quechua

Sample UID: SA003965X

Sample Description:This sample is the subset of the Kidd lab Quechua sample SA000069P.This sample was collected with informed consent in Lima, Peru, from individuals who lived in the more remote Andes and were judged by a local anthropologist to be typical Quechuan speakers. This sample was collected by L.Giuffra (Washington University). Transformed cell lines were established at Yale.

Number of Chromosomes: 46

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of Sample SA000069P

References:
- Publication pending


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Patacancha

Sample UID: SA003035L

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Quechua people born or living in the village of Patacancha in the District of Cuzco, Peru. Informed consent were obtained from the subjects.

Number of Chromosomes: 36

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Monsalve MV, Salzano FM, Rupert JL, Hutz MH, Hill K, Hurtado AM, Hochachka PW, Devine DV. "Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) allele frequencies in Amerindians". Ann Hum Genet. 67:367-71. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Qqelcqanca

Sample UID: SA003036M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Quechua people born or living in the village of Qqelcqanca in the District of Cuzco, Peru. Informed consent were obtained from the subjects. People living in Qqelcqanca are at the highest altitude of 4,200m.

Number of Chromosomes: 44

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Monsalve MV, Salzano FM, Rupert JL, Hutz MH, Hill K, Hurtado AM, Hochachka PW, Devine DV. "Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) allele frequencies in Amerindians". Ann Hum Genet. 67:367-71. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Huilloc

Sample UID: SA003037N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Quechua individuals born or living in the village of Huilloc in the District of Cuzco, Peru. Informed consent were obtained from the subjects.

Number of Chromosomes: 64

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Monsalve MV, Salzano FM, Rupert JL, Hutz MH, Hill K, Hurtado AM, Hochachka PW, Devine DV. "Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) allele frequencies in Amerindians". Ann Hum Genet. 67:367-71. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kichwas

Sample UID: SA003706Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kichwas from the western area of Ecuador(Kichwas from Oriente).

Number of Chromosomes: 84

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Poulsen L, Břrsting C, Tomas C, González-Andrade F, Lopez-Pulles R, González-Solórzano J, Morling N. "Typing of Amerindian Kichwas and Mestizos from Ecuador with the SNPforID multiplex". Forensic Sci Int Genet. (Epub,ahead of print) (2011) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Quechua

Sample UID: SA004726T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Quechua individuals from South America. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 42

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kichwa

Sample UID: SA004510K

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Kichwa individuals. Samples were collected by the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Central University of Ecuador, and by the Laboratory of Human Genetics, Department of Biology and Biotechnology, LSpallanzani, University of Pavia, Italy. Informed Consent was signed by every sample donor, and all samples were anonymised. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the Capital Region of Denmark (H-1-2011-081) and complies with the ethical principles of the 2000 Helsinki Declaration of the 2006 World Medical Association. Samples were only used for research purposes. Kichwa represents around 92% of the Native Amerindian population in Ecuador.

Number of Chromosomes: 132

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Santangelo R, Gonzales-Andrade F, Borsting C, Torroni A, Pereira V, Morling N. "Analysis of ancestry informative markers in three main ethnic groups from Ecuador supports a trihybrid origin of Ecuadorians". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 31:29-33. (2017) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan