ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
SamoansPO000072JSAMOANAUSTRONESIAN

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  13S, 173W; 14.5S, 169W  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources:  Samoan History Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record     Map of Somoan Islands Record     History of Samoa Record    EthnoAtlas: Group Record Record     Samoan Culture Record    
References: See references
Population Description: Samoa is a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean. The islands were settled as part of the general settlement of the Pacific by the Polynesian culture beginning at approximately 1000 BC. These people migrated from the west (the East Indies, the Malay Peninsula or the Philippines). By 200 BC Samoa was the center of a trading community. Prior to the arrival of missionaries Samoa had a complex polytheistic religion. In the religion it was prophesized that a new religion would end the rule of their gods. Therefore, when missionaries came to the islands the people easily converted to Christianity. The Matai, or chief, still holds the traditional authority in the village. Each extended family has their own matai, who is appointed by consensus of the family. Ownership of land is legally owned by the matai who directs the economic, social and political affairs of the extended family. The Samoan language is part of the Austronesian language family, which extends from New Zealand across the Indian Ocean to Madagascar.
References:


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Samoan

Sample UID: SA000290L

Sample Description:The Samoan sample was drawn from villages distributed over the islands of Western Samoa.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Parra E, Saha N, Soemantri AG, McGarvey ST, Hundrieser J, Shriver MD, Deka R. "Genetic Variation at 9 autosomal Microsatellite Loci in Asian and Pacific Populations". Hum. Biol. 71:757-779. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Samoan

Sample UID: SA000072J

Sample Description:Samoan sample collected by Dr. W. Knowler of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease.

Number of Chromosomes: 22

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Samoa

Sample UID: SA001757U

Sample Description:This sample consist of individuals from the general population of American Samoa and Samoa. Individuals were identified by biogeographical information traced back at least two generations. This sample was collected by Dr. Rene J. Herrera.

Number of Chromosomes: 190

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shepard EM, Chow RA, Suafo'a E, Addison D, Perez-Miranda AM, Garcia-Bertrand RL, Herrera RJ. "Autosomal STR variation in five Austronesian populations". Hum Biol 77:825-851. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Samoan

Sample UID: SA003736T

Sample Description:This sample consists of ethnic Samoans sampled in Samoa. This sample was collected by the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF). Informed consent was obtained from all the study subjects at the sampling location and the western Institutional Review Board approved all procedures.

Number of Chromosomes: 26

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Xing J, Watkins WS, Shlien A, Walker E, Huff CD, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Simonson TS, Weiss RB, Schiffman JD, Malkin D, Woodward SR, Jorde LB. "Toward a more uniform sampling of human genetic diversity: a survey of worldwide populations by high-density genotyping". Genomics 96:199-210. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Samoans

Sample UID: SA003378V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Somoans.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 222

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Deka R, McGarvey ST, Aston CE, Jin L, Ferrell RE, Kamboh MI, Yu LM, and Chakraborty R "Genetic characterization of American and Western Somoans". Human Biology 66:805-822. (1994)

- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: American Samoan

Sample UID: SA002341K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Amreican Samoans. Informed consent was obtained from the individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Su B, Sun G, Lu D, Xiao J, Hu F, Chakraborty R, Deka R, Jin L "Distribution of three HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A, CCR2-641, and CCR5-delta32) in global populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 8:975-9. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: American Somoans

Sample UID: SA003342M

Sample Description:This sample consists of American Somoans.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 508

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Crews DE, Fitton LJ, Kottke BA, Kamboh MI. "Population genetics of apolipoproteins A-IV, E, and H, and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE): associations with lipids, and apolipoprotein levels in American Samoans". Am J Phys Anthropol. 124:364-72.. (2004) Online citation.

- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan