ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
SomaliPO000075MSOMALIAfro-Asiatic

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  12N, 40E; 2S, 52E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: African Art Museum: Tribal Map Record    Bethany WPC: The Somali of Ethiopia Record    Ethnologue: Language Map Record    EthnoAtlas: Group Record Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record    HRAF: Collection of Ethnography Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The Somali, a Cushitic people, are one of the most homogenous people groups in all of Africa. With a population at approximately ten million, the Somali live scattered across the northeastern portion of Africa and in the Middle East. They first came to this region approximately 800 years ago. Roughly 150 years later they began to expand westward and southward. They converted to Islam, under the influence of Arab traders, around 1550. They did not move to Ethiopia until 1650.

A typical Somali family is a nuclear one that owns a herd of sheep and a few camels. The Somali people consider themselves warriors and are divided by clans. There are four major Somali clan groups. Although the Somali are 99% Shafiite Muslims, numerous pagan beliefs and traditions have been intermingled with their Islamic practices. The standard Islamic prayers are usually observed; however, Somali women have never worn the required veils. Villagers and urban settlers frequently turn to their religious leader (the wadaad), for blessings, charms, and advice in worldly matters.
References:
- Cassanelli LV. "The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900". Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press (1982)

- Cerulli E. "The Somali tribe". Roma: Ministero degli Affari Esteri ; Instituto poligrafico dello Stato P.V. (1964)

- Puccioni N. "Anthropology and ethnography of the peoples of Somalia". Bologna, Italy: Nicola Zanichelli (1936)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Somali

Sample UID: SA000075M

Sample Description:Somali samples from individuals living in Somalia, Kenya, and Ethniopia.

Number of Chromosomes: 58

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Somali

Sample UID: SA002053K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Somali individuals from Ethiopia. Individuals are unrelated at the grandpaternal level and ethnic origin was self-declared.

Number of Chromosomes: 18

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ingram CJ, Elamin MF, Mulcare CA, Weale ME, Tarekegn A, Raga TO, Bekele E, Elamin FM, Thomas MG, Bradman N, Swallow DM. "A novel polymorphism associated with lactose tolerance in Africa: multiple causes for lactase persistence?". Hum Genet. 120:779-788. (2007) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Somalia

Sample UID: SA002000C

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated immigrants to Denmark from Somalia. There is no information available on specific ethnic or tribal affiliation.

Number of Chromosomes: 208

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Sánchez JJ, Phillips C, Borsting C, Balogh K, Bogus M, Fondevila M, Harrison CD, Musgrave-Brown E, Salas A, Syndercombe-Court D, Schneider PM, Carracedo A, Morling N. "A multiplex assay with 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms for human identification". Electrophoresis. 27:1713-1724. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Somali

Sample UID: SA002138O

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals (adults) collected by Dr. Qasim Mehdi and colleagues in Pakistan. This sample consists of Somali individuals that came to Pakistan.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Li H, Mukherjee N, Soundararajan U, Tarnok Z, Barta C, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, Kajuna SLB, Mehdi SQ, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Geographically Separate Increases in the Frequency of the Derived ADH1B*47His Allele in East and West Asia". Am J Hum Genet 81:842-6. (2007) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Somali

Sample UID: SA004520L

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Somali individuals (96 males and 13 females).

Number of Chromosomes: 218

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- van der Heijden S, de Oliveira SJ, Kampmann ML, Borsting C, Morling N. "Comparison of manual and automated AmpliSeq workflows in the typing of a Somali population with the Precision ID Identity Panel". Forensic Sci Int Genet 31:118-125. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Somali

Sample UID: SA004065P

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Somalis.

Number of Chromosomes: 350

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Neuvonen AM, Palo JU, Hedman M, Sajantila A. "Discrimination power of Investigator DIPplex loci in Finnish and Somali populations". Forensic Sci Int Genet. (Epub, ahead of print) (2011) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Somalia

Sample UID: SA004415O

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from Somalia. This sample was obtained with informed written consent for scientific research. Institutional ethical approval documents were obtained and subjected to review by the European Commission.

Number of Chromosomes: 92

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Eduardoff M, Gross TE, Santos C, de la Puente M, Ballard D, Strobl C, Børsting C, Morling N, Fusco L, Hussing C, Egyed B, Souto L, Uacyisrael J, Syndercombe Court D, Carracedo Á, Lareu MV, Schneider PM, Parson W, Phillips C; EUROFORGEN-NoE Consortium, Parson W, Phillips C "Inter-laboratory evaluation of the EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP panel by massively parallel sequencing using the Ion PGM™". Forensic Sci Int Genet 23:178-89. (2016) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Somalis

Sample UID: SA004636T

Sample Description:This sample consists of 98 selected unrelated Somali individuals with self-declared Somali ancestry who wanted to immigrate to Denmark.

Number of Chromosomes: 196

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Pereira V, Mogensen HS, Borsting C, Morling N "Evaluation of the Precision ID Ancestry Panel for crime case work: A SNP typing assay developed for typing of 165 ancestral informative markers". Forensic Sci Int Genet 28:138-145. (2017) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

Top


© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan