ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
Papuan New GuineanPO000084M

Synonyms: New Guinean ;
Geographic Location1:  0.5S, 130.5E; 11.5S, 154E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs: Papua New Guinea Information Record    Embassy of Papua New Guinea: Population Description Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record     Ethnologue: Language Description Record    
References: See references
Population Description: 

New Guineans live on the South Pacific Island of New Guinea. New Guinea is the second largest island and the largest populated island in the world. It is located in the Pacific Ocean and is east of Indonesia and north of Australia. Physically, the island is a mix of mountains, swamps and rainforests. Politically, the island is divided into two parts. The western half of New Guinea is a province of Indonesia called Irian Jaya. The eastern half is called Papua New Guinea and is an independent state which achieved independence from Australia in 1975.

New Guinea was first settled by several waves of people, probably from the north, approximately 50,000 years ago, although little is known about them. We do know some of the earliest agriculturalists introduced new, non-native plant species and domesticated animals such as the dog, pig, and chickens to New Guinea. European settlers didn't begin to settle New Guinea until the mid-1800's and even that was limited to the coastal areas leaving the interior unexposed to Europeans until the early 1900's. The people of New Guinea were one of the last groups to come into contact with European culture.

Because New Guinea has such a diverse landscape it has allowed many groups to be isolated from one another and therefore no single set of cultural characteristics can describe all New Guineans. There are over 800 languages spoken in New Guinea, preventing us from identifying a primary language for New Guineans. Similarly, New Guineans subsist in multiple ways. Most New Guineans are gardeners and do a little hunting and gathering but their method for doing so differs according to geographic region. For example, those living in the lowlands are shifting cultivators using swidden cultivation to maximize their soil but those living in the highlands rely heavily on the cultivation of sweet potatoes and do not use swidden cultivation. Just as in their methods of subsistence, New Guineans are just as diverse in all the other aspects of their many cultures.


References:
- Brown P. "New Guinea: Ecology, Society, and Culture". Ann Rev Anthropol 7:263-91. (1978)

- Lea DAM, Irwin PG. "New Guinea: The Territory and its People". London: Oxford University Press (1967)

- Papua New Guinea Office of Information, Ashton C (editor). "Papua New Guinea". Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii (1976)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papua New Guinea, Coastal

Sample UID: SA000697W

Sample Description:This sample was collected from various coastal localities in Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 98

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of sample SA000523K

References:
- Perna NT, Batzer MA, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Alu insertion polymorphism: A new type of marker for human population studies". Human Biology 64:641-648. (1992)

- Romualdi C, Balding D, Nasidze IS, Risch G, Robichaux M, Sherry ST, Stoneking M, Batzer MA, Barbujani G. "Patterns of human diversity, within and among continents, inferred from Biallilic DNA polymorphisms". Genome Res 12:602-612. (2002) Online citation.

- Stoneking M, Fontius JJ, Clifford SL, Soodyall H, Arcot SS, Saha N, Jenkins T, Tahir MA, Deininger PL, Batzer MA. "Alu insertion polymorphisms and human evolution: evidence for a larger population size in Africa ". Genome Res 7:1061-71. (1997) Online citation.

- Stoneking M, Jorde LB, Bhatia K, Wilson AC. "Geographic variation in human mitochondrial DNA from Papua New Guinea". Genetics 124:717-733. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papua New Guinea, Highland

Sample UID: SA000698X

Sample Description:This sample was collected in several localities in the Eastern and Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 120

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000522J

References:
- Perna NT, Batzer MA, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Alu insertion polymorphism: A new type of marker for human population studies". Human Biology 64:641-648. (1992)

- Romualdi C, Balding D, Nasidze IS, Risch G, Robichaux M, Sherry ST, Stoneking M, Batzer MA, Barbujani G. "Patterns of human diversity, within and among continents, inferred from Biallilic DNA polymorphisms". Genome Res 12:602-612. (2002) Online citation.

- Stoneking M, Fontius JJ, Clifford SL, Soodyall H, Arcot SS, Saha N, Jenkins T, Tahir MA, Deininger PL, Batzer MA. "Alu insertion polymorphisms and human evolution: evidence for a larger population size in Africa ". Genome Res 7:1061-71. (1997) Online citation.

- Stoneking M, Jorde LB, Bhatia K, Wilson AC. "Geographic variation in human mitochondrial DNA from Papua New Guinea". Genetics 124:717-733. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papua New Guinea Highlanders

Sample UID: SA000291M

Sample Description:The Papuan-speaking New Guinea Highlander samples were collected from the northern fringes of Papua New Guinea's central highlands.

Number of Chromosomes: 118

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Parra E, Saha N, Soemantri AG, McGarvey ST, Hundrieser J, Shriver MD, Deka R. "Genetic Variation at 9 autosomal Microsatellite Loci in Asian and Pacific Populations". Hum. Biol. 71:757-779. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: New Guinea Coast

Sample UID: SA002533N

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from New Guinea Coast. This sample was collected as part of anthropological surveys of investigation of non-HIV related medical conditions.

Number of Chromosomes: 192

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Martinson JJ, Chapman NH, Rees DC, Liu YT, Clegg JB. "Global distribution of the CCR5 gene 32-basepair deletion". Nat Genet 16:100-103. (1997) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papua New Guinea

Sample UID: SA000130E

Sample Description:Papua New Guineans from both highland and lowland groups

Number of Chromosomes: 72

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Hollox EJ, Poulter M, Wang Y, Krause A, Swallow DM. "Common polymorphism in a highly variable region upstream of the human lactase gene affects DNA-protein interactions". Eur J Hum Genet 7:791-800. (1999) Online citation.

- Hollox EJ, Poulter M, Zvarik M, Ferak V, Krause A, Jenkins T, Saha N, Kozlov AI, Swallow DM. "Lactase Haplotype Diversity in the Old World ". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:160-172. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: New Guinean

Sample UID: SA000084M

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals from Goroka and Gimi, Papua-New Guinea. The sample was collected by F. Black and K. Bhatia.

Number of Chromosomes: 42

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Highland Papua New Guinea

Sample UID: SA000522J

Sample Description:This sample was collected in several localities in the Eastern and Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 136

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Perna NT, Batzer MA, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Alu insertion polymorphism: A new type of marker for human population studies". Human Biology 64:641-648. (1992)

- Stoneking M, Jorde LB, Bhatia K, Wilson AC. "Geographic variation in human mitochondrial DNA from Papua New Guinea". Genetics 124:717-733. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Coastal Papua New Guinean

Sample UID: SA000523K

Sample Description:This sample was collected from various coastal localities in Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 96

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Perna NT, Batzer MA, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Alu insertion polymorphism: A new type of marker for human population studies". Human Biology 64:641-648. (1992)

- Stoneking M, Jorde LB, Bhatia K, Wilson AC. "Geographic variation in human mitochondrial DNA from Papua New Guinea". Genetics 124:717-733. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Eastern Highland Papua New Guinea

Sample UID: SA000606M

Sample Description:This sample was collected from a location in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 58

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000522J

References:
- Perna NT, Batzer MA, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Alu insertion polymorphism: A new type of marker for human population studies". Human Biology 64:641-648. (1992)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Southern Highland Papua New Guinea

Sample UID: SA000607N

Sample Description:This sample was collected from a location in the southern highlands of Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 78

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000522J

References:
- Perna NT, Batzer MA, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Alu insertion polymorphism: A new type of marker for human population studies". Human Biology 64:641-648. (1992)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Madang

Sample UID: SA001200D

Sample Description:This sample consists of Madang from the northeastern coastal area of Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 106

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chen LZ, Easteal S, Board PG, Kirk RL. "Evolution of beta-globin haplotypes in human populations". Mol Biol Evol. 7:423-437. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Karimui

Sample UID: SA001202F

Sample Description:This sample consists of Karimui who are Melanesian Highlanders from Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 108

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chen LZ, Easteal S, Board PG, Kirk RL. "Evolution of beta-globin haplotypes in human populations". Mol Biol Evol. 7:423-437. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Eastern Highlanders

Sample UID: SA001201E

Sample Description:This sample consists of highland Melanesians from the eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 106

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chen LZ, Easteal S, Board PG, Kirk RL. "Evolution of beta-globin haplotypes in human populations". Mol Biol Evol. 7:423-437. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papuans

Sample UID: SA001340I

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated individuals from New Guinea, eastern highlanders.

Number of Chromosomes: 208

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Brinkmann B, Junge A, Meyer E, Wiegand P. "Population genetic diversity in relation to microsatellite heterogeneity". Hum Mutat 11:135-144. (1998) Online citation.

- Rolf B, Waterkamp K, Huhne J. "Allele frequency data for the FGA locus in eight populations". Int J Legal Med. 111:55-6. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papuans

Sample UID: SA000867V

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy unrelated adult Papuans (Eastern Highlanders) from New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 202

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Brinkmann B, Junge A, Meyer E, Wiegand P. "Population genetic diversity in relation to microsatellite heterogeneity". Hum Mutat 11:135-144. (1998) Online citation.

- Takeshita H, Meyer E, Brinkmann B. "The STR loci HumTPO and HumLPL: population genetic data in eight populations". Int J Legal Med. 110:331-3. . (1997) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papuan, HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001501H

Sample Description:This sample from New Guinea is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH). This sample consists of unrelated individuals and was collected with proper informed consent.

Number of Chromosomes: 34

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW. "Genetic structure of human populations". Science 298:2381-2385. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papua New Guinean

Sample UID: SA001705N

Sample Description:This sample consists of paternally unrelated men from Papua New Guniea

Number of Chromosomes: 168

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Nadkarni NA, Weale ME, von Schantz M, Thomas MG. "Evolution of a length polymorphism in the human PER3 gene, a component of the circadian system". J Biol Rhythms. 20:490-499. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papuan

Sample UID: SA001641M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Papuan individuals from Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 76

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yoshiura KI et al. "A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type.". Nat Genet. 38:324-330. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papua New Guinean

Sample UID: SA002111F

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated male and female Papua New Guineans from Papua New Guinea.

Number of Chromosomes: 408

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Goedde HW, Agarwal DP, Fritze G, Meier-Tackmann D, Singh S, Beckmann G, Bhatia K, Chen LZ, Fang B, Lisker R "Distribution of ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes in different populations". Hum Genet. 88:344-6. (1992) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: PNG Highlanders

Sample UID: SA003171M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Papua New Guinean Highlanders.

Number of Chromosomes: 170

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Schneider JA, Rees DC, Liu YT, Clegg JB. "Worldwide distribution of a common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation". Am J Hum Genet. 62:1258-60. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Pawaia

Sample UID: SA003370N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Pawaia (Haia in Pio-Tura Census division of Chimbu Province)

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 116

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.

- Kamboh MI, Bhatia KK, and Ferrell RE "Genetic studies of Human Apolipoproteins .12. Population genetics of apolipoproteins in Papua-NewGuinea". American Journal of Human Biology 2:17-23. (1990)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Huli

Sample UID: SA003371O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Huli (highland provinces of southern highlands-mostly live in Tari Basin).

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 104

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.

- Kamboh MI, Bhatia KK, and Ferrell RE "Genetic studies of Human Apolipoproteins .12. Population genetics of apolipoproteins in Papua-NewGuinea". American Journal of Human Biology 2:17-23. (1990)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: New Guinea

Sample UID: SA002344N

Sample Description:This sample consists of New Guinean highlander from an unspecified region collected by A.Kimura.

Number of Chromosomes: 138

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Su B, Chakraborty R, Jin L, Xiao J, Lu D "An HIV-resistant allele is exceptionally frequent in New Guinean highlanders". JAMA 280:1830. (1998) Online citation.

- Su B, Sun G, Lu D, Xiao J, Hu F, Chakraborty R, Deka R, Jin L "Distribution of three HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A, CCR2-641, and CCR5-delta32) in global populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 8:975-9. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: New Guinean

Sample UID: SA002345O

Sample Description:This sample consists of New Guinean highlanders from Kwoma, Iatmul and Bargan areas. This sample was collected by A.Wilson, PhD and A.Parham, PhD.

Number of Chromosomes: 42

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Su B, Chakraborty R, Jin L, Xiao J, Lu D "An HIV-resistant allele is exceptionally frequent in New Guinean highlanders". JAMA 280:1830. (1998) Online citation.

- Su B, Sun G, Lu D, Xiao J, Hu F, Chakraborty R, Deka R, Jin L "Distribution of three HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A, CCR2-641, and CCR5-delta32) in global populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 8:975-9. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Madang

Sample UID: SA002066O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Madang individuals from coastal Papua New Guinea. This sample was donated to Dr. David B. Goldstein's lab through previous collaborations.

Number of Chromosomes: 18

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Soranzo N, Bufe B, Sabeti PC, Wilson JF, Weale ME, Marguerie R, Meyerhof W, Goldstein DB. "Positive selection on a high-sensitivity allele of the human bitter-taste receptor TAS2R16". Curr Biol. 15:1257-1265. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Madang

Sample UID: SA004027N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Papua New Guineans from Madang.

Number of Chromosomes: 166

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mead S, Stumpf MP, Whitfield J, Beck JA, Poulter M, Campbell T, Uphill JB, Goldstein D, Alpers M, Fisher EM, Collinge J. "Balancing selection at the prion protein gene consistent with prehistoric kurulike epidemics". Science. 300:640-3. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papuan-New Guinean, Pacific Ocean

Sample UID: SA004719V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Papuan-New Guinean individuals from the pacific ocean (Oceania). Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 44

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Papua New Guinea

Sample UID: SA004517R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Papuan individuals and this sample was obtained by George Washington University (GWU). Written informed consent was obtained from donors regarding the use of samples for the characterisation of population variation.

Number of Chromosomes: 70

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Santos C, Phillips C, Fondevila M, Daniel R, van Oorschot RAH, Burchard EG, Schanfield MS, Souto L, Uacyisrael J, Via M, Carracedo Á, Lareu MV "Pacifiplex: an ancestry-informative SNP panel centred on Australia and the Pacific region". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 20:71-80. (2016) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan