ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
KazakhPO000089RKAZAKHAltaic

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  55N, 50E; 42N, 80E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Map Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The original meaning of the word "kazak" has neither a political nor a social context. Rather, it was a word that defined a free person that broke away from his people to lead the life of an adventurer, such as nomadic groups. They speak Kazak, an Altic language. Their distinctive ethnicity developed throughout the 15th and 16th centuries forming a federation with several clans to provide mutual protection. However, Russians eventually laid claim to the entire territory of Kazakhstan forcing them to become entirely dependent on the Russians. During the Russian Civil War of the 1920's and 1930's nearly half of the Kazak population died. During this time, many Kazaks fled to China and Mongolia. While the majority of the population now lives in Kazakhstan, they make up only about 40% of the country's population; they used to be the most influential of the various Central Asian ethnic groups. Large communities can also be found in Mongolia, Ukraine, and Russia. The structure of the Kazak family is patriarchal, however this is gradually changing. Legal authority that once belonged to the male head of the household has now been shifted to the head of the collective farm. These changes have caused a breakdown in the traditional Kazak family. The Kazak embraced Islam during the sixteenth century and still consider themselves Muslim. In fact they are the second largest Muslim group in Central Asia. It is interesting to note, however, that much of their Islamic practice has been combined with traditional folk religions.
References:
- Dunn SP, Dunn E. "Soviet regime and native culture in central Asia and Kazakhstan: the major peoples". Current Anthropology 8:147-208. (1967)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazaks, unrelated

Sample UID: SA000089R

Sample Description:Collected by D. Pettener. Unrelated individuals from the village of Aktasty in the Almaty region in Kazakhstan, Central Asia

Number of Chromosomes: 114

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Comas D, Calafell F, Mateu E, Perez-Lezaun A, Bosch E, Martinez-Arias R, Clarimon J, Floris G, Luiselli D, Pettener D, Facchini F, Bertranpetit J. "Trading genes along the silk road: mitochondrial DNA sequences and the origin of Central Asian populations". American Jouranl of Human Genetics 63:1824-1838. (1998) Online citation.

- Mateu E, Calafell F, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Casals T, Kidd KK, Bertranpetit J. "Allele Frequencies in a Worldwide Survey of a CA Repeat in the First Intron of the CFTR Gene". Human Heredity 49:15-20. (1999) Online citation.

- Mateu E, Calafell F, Lao O, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis A, Kidd KK, Bertranpetit J. "Worldwide genetic analysis of the CFTR region". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:103-117. (2001) Online citation.

- Perez-Lezaun A, Calafell F, Comas D, Mateu E, Bosch E, Martinez-Arias R, Clarimon J, Fiori G, Luiselli D, Facchini F, Pettener D, Bertranpetit J. "Sex-specific migration patterns in Central Asian populations, revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome short tandem repeats and mtDNA". American Journal of Human Genetics 65:208-219. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakhs

Sample UID: SA000982T

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Kazakhs from from Kosh-Agach, Gornyi Altai Republic, Russia (Central Asia).

Number of Chromosomes: 160

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Khitrinskaya IYu, Stepanov VA, Puzyrev VP, Spiridonova MG, Voevoda MI. "Genetic Differentiation of the Population of Central Asia Inferred from Autosomal Markers". Russian Journal of Genetics 39:1175-1183. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakh

Sample UID: SA001630K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazahs.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yoshiura KI et al. "A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type.". Nat Genet. 38:324-330. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazak

Sample UID: SA002009L

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy unrelated Kazak individuals from northern China. Each individual was the offspring of a non-sanguineous marriage of members of the same nationality within three generations.

Number of Chromosomes: 64

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ma L, Xue Y, Liu Y, Wang Z, Cui X, Li P, Fu S. "Polymorphism study of seven SNPs at ADH genes in 15 Chinese populations". Hereditas. 142:103-111. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakh

Sample UID: SA001695V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Turkic-speaking Kazakhs from Central Asia. These individuals are unrelated to any other subject by at least three generations.

Number of Chromosomes: 166

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kutuev I, Khusainova R, Karunas A, Yunusbayev B, Fedorova S, Lebedev Y, Hunsmann G, Khusnutdinova E. "From East to West: Patterns of Genetic Diversity of Populations Living in Four Eurasian Regions". Hum Hered. 61:1-9. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Khazaks

Sample UID: SA002429R

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Khazak males and females from Balikun county, Xinjiang province, China. This sample was collected by Dr.Hui Li. Informed consent were obtained from the individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 96

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Li H, Gu S, Cai X, Speed WC, Pakstis AJ, Golub EI, Kidd JR, Kidd KK "Ethnic Related Selection for an ADH Class I Variant within East Asia.". PLoS ONE 3:e1881. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakhs

Sample UID: SA003789B

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazakhs from Kazakhstan. Blood samples were collected during expeditions in 2000-2008. The ethnic origin was defined by direct interview.

Number of Chromosomes: 480

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Dzhemileva LU, Barashkov NA, Posukh OL, Khusainova RI, Akhmetova VL, Kutuev IA, Gilyazova IR, Tadinova VN, Fedorova SA, Khidiyatova IM, Lobov SL, Khusnutdinova EK. "Carrier frequency of GJB2 gene mutations c.35delG, c.235delC and c.167delT among the populations of Eurasia". J Hum Genet. 55:749-54. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Khazak

Sample UID: SA003839X

Sample Description:This sample consists of Khazakh living in the city of Gazli situated north of Bukhara city belonging to the Turkic language family and being traditionally nomadic herders.

Number of Chromosomes: 166

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Heyer E, Brazier L, Ségurel L, Hegay T, Austerlitz F, Quintana-Murci L, Georges M, Pasquet P, Veuille M. "Lactase persistence in central Asia: phenotype, genotype, and evolution". Hum Biol. 83:379-92. (2011) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakh

Sample UID: SA003941R

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Kazakh individuals from Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China.

Number of Chromosomes: 214

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wang SM, Zhu AP, Li D, Wang Z, Zhang P, Zhang GL. "Frequencies of genotypes and alleles of the functional SNPs in CYP2C19 and CYP2E1 in mainland Chinese Kazakh, Uygur and Han populations". J Hum Genet 54:372-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakh

Sample UID: SA003629U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Hazakh children in Xinjiang province, China.

Number of Chromosomes: 276

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Li M, Liu Y, Xu P, Ye M, Liu Y. "Association of the rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene with overweight or obesity in Hazakh children]". Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 27:678-81. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakh

Sample UID: SA002495U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazakhs.

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Stephens JC, Reich DE, Goldstein DB, Shin HD, Smith MW et.al. "Dating the origin of the CCR5-Delta32 AIDS-resistance allele by the coalescence of haplotypes". Am J Hum Genet. 62:1507-15. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazak

Sample UID: SA002637S

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated Kazak individuals from Yining city of Xinjiang province, China. Each individual was the offspring of a non-consanguineous marriage of members of the same nationality within three generations. Informed consent from the participants and the approval of appropriate local authority were obtained.

Number of Chromosomes: 188

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mao R, Fan Y, Chen F, Fu S. "Genetic polymorphism of MTHFR G1793A in Chinese populations". Eur J Epidemiol. (Epub ahead of print) (2008)

- Mao R, Fan Y, Chen F, Sun D, Bai J, Fu S. "Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms in 13 Chinese ethnic populations.". Cell Biochem Funct. 26:352-8. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakhs

Sample UID: SA002816R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazakhs from Kazakhstan.

Number of Chromosomes: 70

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Borinskaya S, Kal'ina N, Marusin A, Faskhutdinova G, Morozova I, Kutuev I, Koshechkin V, Khusnutdinova E, Stepanov V, Puzyrev V, Yankovsky N, Rogaev E. "Distribution of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*47His allele in Eurasia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:89-92. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazak

Sample UID: SA002882U

Sample Description:This sample consists of male Kazak individuals. The protocol of this study was approved by the institutional review board of Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Number of Chromosomes: 92

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shi H, Tan SJ, Zhong H, Hu W, Levine A, Xiao CJ, Peng Y, Qi XB, Shou WH, Ma RL, Li Y, Su B, Lu X "Winter temperature and UV are tightly linked to genetic changes in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway in Eastern Asia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:534-41.. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Senior Zhuz

Sample UID: SA002329Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazakhs from southeastern Kazakhstan from the settlement of Fabrichnyi, Zhambyl'sk raion, Almaty oblast. The ethnic and tribal affliation of the individuals examined were determined through a questionnaire which included the data on the genealogy of the relatives down to three generations.

Zhuz is an economically and geographically independent region inhabited by a group of Kazakh tribes. The Senior Zhuz ( the region of Semirech'e) is inhabited by Usuns, Kangals, Dulats, Albans, Dzhalairs and other tribes.

Number of Chromosomes: 178

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Salimova, A; Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Akhmetova, V; Svyatova, G; Berezina, G; Khusnutdinova, E "Analysis of Ethnogeographic Groups of Kazakhs Based on Nuclear Genome DNA Polymorphism". Genetika. 41:973-80. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Middle Zhuz

Sample UID: SA002330I

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazakhs from Central Kazhakstan (Abaisk raion).The ethnic and tribal affliation of the individuals examined were determined through a questionnaire which included the data on the genealogy of the relatives down to three generations.

Zhuz is an economically and geographically independent region inhabited by a group of Kazakh tribes. The middle Zhuz is comprised of Kypchaks, Argyns, Naimans, Kereis and other tribes.

Number of Chromosomes: 284

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Salimova, A; Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Akhmetova, V; Svyatova, G; Berezina, G; Khusnutdinova, E "Analysis of Ethnogeographic Groups of Kazakhs Based on Nuclear Genome DNA Polymorphism". Genetika. 41:973-80. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Junior Zhuz

Sample UID: SA002331J

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazakhs from southwestern Kazakhstan from Zhalagashskii raion, Kyzylorda oblast. The ethnic and tribal affliation of the individuals examined were determined through a questionnaire which included the data on the genealogy of the relatives down to three generations.

Zhuz is an economically and geographically independent region inhabited by a group of Kazakh tribes.The grouping of the tribes in the Junior Zhuz took place much later, in the 16th century after the break-up of the Nogay Horde and moving of some Nogais to the east.

Number of Chromosomes: 186

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Salimova, A; Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Akhmetova, V; Svyatova, G; Berezina, G; Khusnutdinova, E "Analysis of Ethnogeographic Groups of Kazakhs Based on Nuclear Genome DNA Polymorphism". Genetika. 41:973-80. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakh Chinese

Sample UID: SA003601K

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy Kazakh Chinese selected from the Boertonggu countryside of Shawan region in the Xinjiang uygur autonomous region of china.

Number of Chromosomes: 276

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Deng F, Hu Q, Tang B, He F, Guo S, Chen J, Li F, Wu X, Zhang J, Zhang H, Zhao J, Zhong H, He L, Li J, Zhang L, Wang S "Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene intron 4, 27 bp repeat polymorphism and essential hypertension in the Kazakh Chinese population". Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 39:311-6. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazak in Xinjiang, China(CKX)

Sample UID: SA004409R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazak individuals from Xinjiang Province,China.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of sample SA004324N

References:
- Wei YL, Wei L, Zhao L, Sun QF, Jiang L, Zhang T, Liu HB, Chen JG, Ye J, Hu L, Li CX "A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents". Int J Legal Med. 130:27-37. (2016) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakhs

Sample UID: SA004225N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazakhs from Ili. Written informed consent were obtained from all the unrelated healthy volunteers.

Number of Chromosomes: 192

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wei YL, Qin CJ, Dong H, Jia J, Li CX "A validation study of a multiplex INDEL assay for forensic use in four Chinese populations". Forensic Sci Int Genet. (2013) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakhs

Sample UID: SA004285T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Altaian Kazakhs.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rogalla U, Rychlicka E, Derenko MV, Malyarchuk BA, Grzybowski T. "Simple and cost-effective 14-loci SNP assay designed for differentiation of European, East Asian and African samples". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 14:42-9.. (2015) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazak in Xinjiang, China(CKX)

Sample UID: SA004654T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazak individuals from Xinjiang Province,China. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is superset of SA004409R and SA004324N. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China.

Number of Chromosomes: 458

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazakh

Sample UID: SA004593V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Central Asian Turkic speaker Kazakh individuals. To limit influence of admixture this sample included villagers who reportedly were settled in the sample place for at least three generations (up to grandparents) .This sample is part of the "core" dataset that were genotyped for this study.

Number of Chromosomes: 90

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Triska P, Chekanov N, Stepanov V, Khusnutdinova EK, Kumar GPA, Akhmetova V, Babalyan K, Boulygina E, Kharkov V, Gubina M, Khidiyatova , Khitrinskaya , Khrameeva EE, Khusainova R, Konovalova N, Litvinov S, Marusin A, Mazur AM, Puzyrev V, Ivanoshchuk D, Spiridonova M, Teslyuk A, Tsygankova S, Triska M, Trofimova N, Vajda E, Balanovsky O, Baranova A, Skryabin K, Tatarinova TV, Prokhortchouk E "Between Lake Baikal and the Baltic Sea: genomic history of the gateway to Europe". BMC Genet 18:(2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazak

Sample UID: SA004324N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kazak individuals from Xinjiang Province,China.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Pakstis AJ , Haigh E, Cherni L, Ben Ammar ElGaaied A, Barton A, Evsanaa B, Togtokh A, Brissenden J, Roscoe J, Bulbul O, Filoglu G, Gurkan C, Meiklejohn KA, Robertson JM, Li,C.-X. Wei Y.-L., Li H,Soundararajan U,Rajeevan H, Kidd JR, Kidd KK "52 additional reference population samples for the 55 AISNP panel". Forensic Science International: Genetics 269-271. (2015) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kazak

Sample UID: SA004531N

Sample Description:This sample consists of 513healthy individuals (200 males and 313 females) from Kazak group residing in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Written informed consents were acquired from all participants involved in this study. The research was carried out according to the human and ethical research principles of Xiâan Jiaotong University Health Science Center, China and approved by the ethics committee of Xiâan Jiaotong University Health Science Center.

Number of Chromosomes: 1026

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kong T, Chen Y, Guo Y, Wei Y, Jin X, Xie T, Mu Y, Dong Q, Wen S, Zhou B, Zhang L, Shen C, Zhu B "Autosomal InDel polymorphisms for population genetic structure and differentiation analysis of Chinese Kazak ethnic group.". Oncotarget. 8:56651-56658.. (2017) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan