ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
MalaysiansPO000094NMALAYAUSTRONESIAN

Synonyms: Malay ;
Geographic Location1:  7N, 100E; 1N, 119E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources:  People of Malaysia Record    Ethnologue: Country Description Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record     Malaysian Timeline Record     Map of Malaysia Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The diverse, multi-racial Malaysian population is composed of several different cultures: the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and many indigenous groups. The Malays are Muslim and speak Bahasa. The Chinese are Buddhists and speak Hokkien and Hakka. The Indians are mainly Hindu Tamils from southern India who speak Tamil. The indigenous population is the Orang Asli, which is really a collective term for 18 sub-ethnic groups (each with its own language and culture). Linguistically some of the northern Orang Asli groups speak "Asian" languages. This suggests a historical link with indigenous groups in Burma, Thailand and Indo-China. Despite Bahasa Malaysia being the official language, when members of these, different communities talk to each other, they generally speak English, which was recently reinstated as the language of instruction in higher education.
References:
- Evers HD. "The culture of Malaysian urbanization: Malay and Chinese conceptions of space". Urban Anthropology 6:205-16. (1977)

- Wilkinson RK. "Papers on Malay customs and beliefs". Journal of the Malaysian Branch Royal Asiatic Society 30:1-87. (1957)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA000632L

Sample Description:This sample was collected from unrelated Malay Aborigine, Malaysia.

Number of Chromosomes: 24

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Antunez-de-Mayolo G, Antunez-de-Mayolo A, Antunez-de-Mayolo P, Papiha SS, Hammer M, Yunis JJ, Yunis EJ, Damodaran C, de Pancorbo MM, Caeiro JL, Puzyrev VP, Herrera RJ. "Phylogenetics of worldwide human populations as determined by polymorphic Alu insertions". Electrophoresis 23:3346-3356. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malays

Sample UID: SA000705M

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy Malays living in Singapore. There are 75 males and 98 females with an age range of 16-79 years. They were randomly selected from individuals registered at an outpatient clinic at the National University Hospital in Singapore.

Number of Chromosomes: 202

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Choong ML, Sethi SK, Koay ESC. "Effects of intragenic variability at 3 polymorphic sites of the apolipoprotein B gene on serum lipids and lipoproteins in a multiethnic Asian population". Human Biology 71:381-97. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malays, Singapore

Sample UID: SA000301E

Sample Description:Unrelated Singapore residents of Malaysian descent, selected at random.

Number of Chromosomes: 202

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Fregeau CJ, Tan-Siew WF, Yap KH, Carmody GR, Chow ST, Fourney RM. "Population Genetic Characteristics of the STR Loci D21S11 and FGA in Eight Diverse Human Populations". Hum. Biol. 70:813-844. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malaysians, Mixed

Sample UID: SA000097Q

Sample Description:This sample is a very diverse mixture of Malay Aborigines samples ("Orang Asli") and Malays. Collected by Dr. D.C. Wallace (Emory University).

Number of Chromosomes: 24

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA000484Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malays living in Singapore.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Hollox EJ, Poulter M, Zvarik M, Ferak V, Krause A, Jenkins T, Saha N, Kozlov AI, Swallow DM. "Lactase Haplotype Diversity in the Old World ". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68:160-172. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA000284O

Sample Description:Austronesian-speaking group from a Western MalayoPolynesian group

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Parra E, Saha N, Soemantri AG, McGarvey ST, Hundrieser J, Shriver MD, Deka R. "Genetic Variation at 9 autosomal Microsatellite Loci in Asian and Pacific Populations". Hum. Biol. 71:757-779. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA000482O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malay individuals from Malaysia.

Number of Chromosomes: 12

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jorde LB, Bamshad MJ, Watkins WS, Zenger R, Fraley AE, Krakowiak PA, Carpenter KD, Soodyall H, Jenkins T, Rogers AR. "Origins and affinities of modern humans: a comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:523-538. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA000801J

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals whose ancestry was regarded locally as soley Malay. The sample was obtained from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Number of Chromosomes: 69

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Lubahn DB, Lord ST, Bosco J, Kirshtein J, Jeffries OJ, Parker N, Levtzow C, Silverman LM, Graham JB. "Population genetics of coagulant factor IX: frequencies of two DNA polymorphisms in five ethnic groups". Am J Hum Genet. 40:527-36. (1987) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA000808Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Malays who were students or staff of the University of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur.

Number of Chromosomes: 67

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Graham JB, Kunkel GR, Egilmez NK, Wallmark A, Fowlkes DM, Lord ST. "The varying frequencies of five DNA polymorphisms of X-linked coagulant factor IX in eight ethnic groups ". Am J Hum Genet 49:537-44. (1991) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malaysian

Sample UID: SA000534M

Sample Description:This sample consists of native Malays and individuals from the Orang Asli (Semai Senoi), an aboriginal group from the peninsular center.

Number of Chromosomes: 94

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Melton T, Peterson R, Redd AJ, Saha N, Sofro ASM, Martinson J, Stoneking M. "Polynesian genetic affinities with southeast Asian populations as identified by mtDNA analysis". Am J Hum Genet 57:403-414. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA001053J

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated healthy Malay volunteer donors residing in Malaysia.

Number of Chromosomes: 312

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Lim KB, Jeevan NH, Jaya P, Othman MI, Lee YH. "STR data for the AmpFlSTR Profiler loci from the three main ethnic population groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) in Malaysia". Forensic Sci Int. 119:109-112. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Java

Sample UID: SA001123H

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated volunteer donors from the Malay population of Java (Jakarta and Surabaya).

Number of Chromosomes: 170

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Linacre AM, Phillips P, Wally A, Goodwin W. "STR data for the SGM Plus loci from three Indonesian populations". Forensic Sci Int. 123:232-234. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sulawesi-Sumatra

Sample UID: SA001124I

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated volunteer donors from the Malay population of Sulawesi (Makassar) and Sumatra (Medan).

Number of Chromosomes: 176

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Linacre AM, Phillips P, Wally A, Goodwin W. "STR data for the SGM Plus loci from three Indonesian populations". Forensic Sci Int. 123:232-234. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sulawesi

Sample UID: SA001125J

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated volunteer donors from the Malay population of Sulawesi (Makassar).

Number of Chromosomes: 88

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Linacre AM, Phillips P, Wally A, Goodwin W. "STR data for the SGM Plus loci from three Indonesian populations". Forensic Sci Int. 123:232-234. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sumatra

Sample UID: SA001126K

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated volunteer donors from the Malay population of Sumatra (Medan).

Number of Chromosomes: 88

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Linacre AM, Phillips P, Wally A, Goodwin W. "STR data for the SGM Plus loci from three Indonesian populations". Forensic Sci Int. 123:232-234. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malays, Singapore

Sample UID: SA001221G

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated healthy Malays residing in Singapore.

Number of Chromosomes: 394

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ang HC, Sornarajah R, Lim SE, Syn CK, Tan-Siew WF, Chow ST, Budowle B. "STR data for the 13 CODIS loci in Singapore Malays". Forensic Sci Int. 148:243-5. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay-Singaporean

Sample UID: SA001588W

Sample Description:This sample consists of ethnic Malay neonates born in Singagore. This sample was classified by the reported ethnic group of the mother.

Number of Chromosomes: 90

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Beaty TH, Fallin MD, Hetmanski JB, McIntosh I, Chong SS, Ingersoll R, Sheng X, Chakraborty R, Scott AF. "Haplotype diversity in 11 candidate genes across four populations". Genetics 171:259-67. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sabah

Sample UID: SA001623M

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from Sabah in North Borneo.

Number of Chromosomes: 132

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yoshiura KI et al. "A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type.". Nat Genet. 38:324-330. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA001743P

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Malays from Malaysia.

Number of Chromosomes: 370

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Izuan M, Seah LH, Panneerchelvam S, Nor NM. "STR data for the PowerPlex 16 System loci for the Malays, Chinese and Indians groups of the Malaysian population". J Forensic Sci. 50:1225-1228. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA002106J

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated male and female Malays from Malaysia.

Number of Chromosomes: 130

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Goedde HW, Agarwal DP, Fritze G, Meier-Tackmann D, Singh S, Beckmann G, Bhatia K, Chen LZ, Fang B, Lisker R "Distribution of ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes in different populations". Hum Genet. 88:344-6. (1992) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay (ID-ML)

Sample UID: SA003414M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malay individuals from Pelembang, Indonesia.

Note: This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay (MY-KN)

Sample UID: SA003417P

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malay individuals from Malayasia.

Note: This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 36

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay (MY-MN)

Sample UID: SA003418Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malay individuals from Sri Menanti, Lenggeng, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. These malays speak Minangkabau language.

Note: This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA003631N

Sample Description:This sample of Malay from Singapore aged between 18 and 69 years. This sample is part of the 1998 Singapore National Health Survey (NHS98).

Number of Chromosomes: 1570

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tan JT, Dorajoo R, Seielstad M, Sim XL, Ong RT, Chia KS, Wong TY, Saw SM, Chew SK, Aung T, Tai ES. "FTO variants are associated with obesity in the Chinese and Malay populations in Singapore". Diabetes. 57:2851-7. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA002067P

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malay individuals from Malaysia. This sample was donated to Dr. David B. Goldstein's lab through previous collaborations.

Number of Chromosomes: 28

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Soranzo N, Bufe B, Sabeti PC, Wilson JF, Weale ME, Marguerie R, Meyerhof W, Goldstein DB. "Positive selection on a high-sensitivity allele of the human bitter-taste receptor TAS2R16". Curr Biol. 15:1257-1265. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay (SG-ML)

Sample UID: SA003424N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malays from Singapore.

Note: This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malays

Sample UID: SA003278U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malayas from Malaysia.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 236

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.

- Hallman DM, Boerwinkle E, Saha N, Sandholzer C, Menzel HJ, Csázár A, Utermann G "The apolipoprotein E polymorphism: a comparison of allele frequencies and effects in nine populations". Am J Hum Genet. 49:338-49.. (1991) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malays

Sample UID: SA003583T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malays. All subjects were recruited after informed written consent which was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of School of Medical Sciences, Universti Sains Malaysia.

Number of Chromosomes: 396

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ghazali DM, Rehman A, Rahman AR. "Candidate gene polymorphisms and their association with hypertension in Malays". Clin Chim Acta. 388:46-50. (2008) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA002339R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malay individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Su B, Sun G, Lu D, Xiao J, Hu F, Chakraborty R, Deka R, Jin L "Distribution of three HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A, CCR2-641, and CCR5-delta32) in global populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 8:975-9. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malay

Sample UID: SA004426Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malay individuals. Blood samples were collected after gaining informed consent.

Number of Chromosomes: 218

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Goodwin W, Alimat S "Analysis of four PCR/SNaPshot multiplex assays analyzing 52 SNPforID markers". Electrophoresis. 38:1007-1015. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malays(MAS)

Sample UID: SA004252N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malays from Singapore who were randomly chosen from subjects enrolled in the SGVP (Singapore Genome Variation Project) who were recruited for an interpopulation study on the genetic variability to drug response. Population membership was ascertained on the basis that all four grandparents belong to the same population group. Ethical con- sent for the original study on drug response and further ethical approval for the extension to genome-wide genotyping were granted by two independent Institutional Review Boards at the National University Hospital (Singapore) and the National University of Singapore, respectively. The population label used in the study for this sample is MAS.

Number of Chromosomes: 196

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Teo YY, Sim X, Ong RT, Tan AK, Chen J, Tantoso E, Small KS, Ku CS, Lee EJ, Seielstad M, Chia KS. "Singapore Genome Variation Project: a haplotype map of three Southeast Asian populations". Genome Res 19:2154-62. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Malays

Sample UID: SA004579Z

Sample Description:This sample consists of Malay individuals. This sample was collected with informed consent.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Nur Haliza Hassan "Evaluation of Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms (INDELs) Applied to Forensic Casework in Malaysia". Ph.D thesis (2017)


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

Top


© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan