ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
African AmericansPO000098R

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  65N, 125W; 25N, 65W  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources:  Smithsonian Institute Resources Record     International Gateway to African American History Record     U.S. Census Bureau Reference Record    
References: See references
Population Description: "Black" Americans represent the only extensive movement of a particular group of people to the United States without being distinguished by their ethnic identity. In the early 1500s, an aggregate of people from West Africa and Angola were brought by European nations to work as slaves in the United States. For approximately the next 300 years, millions of enslaved Africans were shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to the United States and Latin America. Of course, other groups have mixed into the "Black" population of the United States. For example, people from other parts of the African continent and from the West Indies are also mixed into the African American population. However, most of the African American population in the United States can trace its ancestoral roots back to Angola, Gambia, Senegal, Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone and other West African countries.

In 1991 there were 31 million African Americans throughout the United States, 12 percent of the nation's total. The modern African American population has created an unique culture and community that connects them to their shared history.
References:
- Baugh J "A survey of Afro-American English". Annual Review of Anthropology 12:335-54. (1983)
Online citation.

- Long CH. "Perspectives for a study of Afro-American religion in the United States". History of Religions 11:54-66. (1971)

- Staiano KV. "Ethnicity as process: the creation of an Afro-American identity ". Ethnicity 7:27-33. (1980)

- Stoffle RW, Shimkin DB. "Explorations in Afro-American ethnohistory". Ethnohistory 27:1-12. (1980)



Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA000927S

Sample Description:This sample consist of African Americans. Samples were taken from African Americans bodies delivered to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York City (USA) at the time of death. Ethnic origin was determined by skin color and country of birth.

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Hou YP, Jin ZM, Li YB, Wu J, Walter H, Kido A, Prinz M. "D20S161 data for three ethnic populations and forensic validation". Int J Legal Med 112:400-402. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA000649T

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals living in the United States with African ancestry. The samples were collected in the State of Michigan, which is located in the mid-west region of the United States.

Number of Chromosomes: 96

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of sample SA000494R

References:
- Batzer MA, Arcot SS, Phinney JW, Alegria-Hartman M, Kass DH, Milligan SM, Kimpton C, Gill P, Hochmeister M, Ioannou PA, Herrera RJ, Boudreau DA, Scheer WD, Keats BJB, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Genetic variation of recent Alu Insertions in human populations". J Mol Evol 42:22-29. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: American Blacks

Sample UID: SA000656R

Sample Description:This sample was collected from normal African Americans living in Houston, Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 72

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Milewicz DM, Byers PH, Reveille J, Hughes AL, Duvic M. "A dimorphic Alu Sb-like insertion in COL3A1 is ethnic-specific". J Mol Evol 42:117-23. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA000661N

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals living in the United States with African ancestry. The samples were collected in the State of Michigan, which is located in the mid-west region of the United States.

Number of Chromosomes: 140

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of sample SA000494R

References:
- Arcot SS, Adamson AW, Risch GW, LaFleur J, Robichaux MB, Lamerdin JE, Carrano AV, Batzer MA "High-resolution cartography of recently integrated human chromosome 19-specific Alu fossils". J Mol Biol 281:843-56. (1998) Online citation.

- Batzer MA, Arcot SS, Phinney JW, Alegria-Hartman M, Kass DH, Milligan SM, Kimpton C, Gill P, Hochmeister M, Ioannou PA, Herrera RJ, Boudreau DA, Scheer WD, Keats BJB, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Genetic variation of recent Alu Insertions in human populations". J Mol Evol 42:22-29. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American, Southern California

Sample UID: SA000193N

Sample Description:African American sample (n=190) of volunteers from Southern California, all apparently healthy. This individuals in this population groups are representative of self-reported ethnicity in the United States. Each subject provided a blood sample, after providing informed consent and self-report of his or her ethnicity.

Number of Chromosomes: 380

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Goddard KA, Hopkins PJ, Hall JM, Witte JS. "Linkage Disequilibrium and Allele-Frequency Distributions for 114 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Five Populations ". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66:216-234. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA000101C

Sample Description:This sample is of 91 cell lines (182 chromosomes) from the NIGMS Cell Repository, Corielle Institute for Medical Research and were collected throughout the United States of America. These cell lines are from among those listed by the NIGMS as from their African American panel and as such may represent a broad cross-section of African Americans.

Number of Chromosomes: 182

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American, DNA

Sample UID: SA000135J

Sample Description:African American part of a collection of DNA purified samples from anonymous blood donors in community-based blood drives in southeastern and central Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 142

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Bonnen PE, Story MD, Ashorn CL, Buchholz TA, Weil MM, Nelson DL. "Haplotypes at ATM Identify Coding-Sequence Variation and Indicate a Region of Extensive Linkage Disequilibrium". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:1437-1451. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African-Americans

Sample UID: SA000494R

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals living in the United States with African ancestry. The samples were collected in the State of Michigan, which is located in the mid-west region of the United States.

Number of Chromosomes: 86

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Batzer MA, Arcot SS, Phinney JW, Alegria-Hartman M, Kass DH, Milligan SM, Kimpton C, Gill P, Hochmeister M, Ioannou PA, Herrera RJ, Boudreau DA, Scheer WD, Keats BJB, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Genetic variation of recent Alu Insertions in human populations". J Mol Evol 42:22-29. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Black American

Sample UID: SA000800I

Sample Description:This sample consists of sequential, unrelated male and female specimens received by the clinical laboratories of the North Carolina Memorial Hospital, USA.

Number of Chromosomes: 142

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Lubahn DB, Lord ST, Bosco J, Kirshtein J, Jeffries OJ, Parker N, Levtzow C, Silverman LM, Graham JB. "Population genetics of coagulant factor IX: frequencies of two DNA polymorphisms in five ethnic groups". Am J Hum Genet. 40:527-36. (1987) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African-American

Sample UID: SA000806O

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated African-Americans residing in Evans County, Georgia.

Number of Chromosomes: 91

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Graham JB, Kunkel GR, Egilmez NK, Wallmark A, Fowlkes DM, Lord ST. "The varying frequencies of five DNA polymorphisms of X-linked coagulant factor IX in eight ethnic groups ". Am J Hum Genet 49:537-44. (1991) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA000557R

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals living in the United States with African ancestry. The samples were collected in the State of Michigan, which is located in the mid-west region of the United States.

Number of Chromosomes: 144

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of sample SA000494R

References:
- Batzer MA, Arcot SS, Phinney JW, Alegria-Hartman M, Kass DH, Milligan SM, Kimpton C, Gill P, Hochmeister M, Ioannou PA, Herrera RJ, Boudreau DA, Scheer WD, Keats BJB, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Genetic variation of recent Alu Insertions in human populations". J Mol Evol 42:22-29. (1996) Online citation.

- Batzer MA, Stoneking M, Alegria-Hartman M, Bazan H, Kass DH, Shaikh TH, Novick GE, Ioannou PA, Scheer WD, Herrera RJ, Deininger PL. "African origin of human-specific polymorphic Alu insertions". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:12288-12292. (1994) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Mixed African, Brazil

Sample UID: SA000207J

Sample Description:A sample of individuals of African ancestry. 14 of them are from Porto Alegre and 53 are from Rio de Janeiro, in the southeastern part of Brazil.

Number of Chromosomes: 154

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Simon D, Bandinelli E, Roisenberg I. "Von Willebrand factor gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian ethnic groups". Hum. Biol. 72:1055-1063. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Colombia, African

Sample UID: SA001049O

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals of African descent collected in five different towns (Quibdo, the state capital; Condoto, Istmina; Tado and Bahia Solano) of the Choco department in the Pacific region of Colombia.

Number of Chromosomes: 502

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yunis JJ, Baena A, Garcia O, Uriarte I, Yunis EJ. "Population data of F13AO1, FES/FPS, VWA, CSF1PO, TPOX and THO1 short tandem repeat loci in a sample of African descent individuals of Colombia". Forensic Sci Int 117:235-236. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: California

Sample UID: SA001227M

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans from California, USA. Samples were provided by The California Department of Justice, Orange County Sheriff's-Coroner Laboratory.

Number of Chromosomes: 400

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Alabama

Sample UID: SA001228N

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans from Alabama, USA. Samples were provided by The Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences.

Number of Chromosomes: 248

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Florida

Sample UID: SA001229O

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans from Florida, USA. The samples were provided by The Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Metro-Dade Police Department/Miami Children's Research Institute and Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office.

Number of Chromosomes: 188

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Virginia

Sample UID: SA001230G

Sample Description:This sample consists of African American's from Virginia. Samples were provided by The National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science.

Number of Chromosomes: 398

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: American Black

Sample UID: SA001244L

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated North American Black individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 15788

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Einum DD, Scarpetta MA. "Genetic analysis of large data sets of North American Black, Caucasian, and Hispanic populations at 13 CODIS STR loci". J Forensic Sci. 49:1381-5. (2004) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA001165N

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans provided by Dr. A. Eisenberg, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas (USA).

Number of Chromosomes: 420

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Moretti TR, Baumstark AL, Defenbaugh DA, Keys KM. "Population data on the thirteen CODIS core short tandem repeat loci in African Americans, U.S. Caucasians, Hispanics, Bahamians, Jamaicans, and Trinidadians". J Forensic Sci. 44:1277-1286. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: New York

Sample UID: SA001231H

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans from New York, USA. Samples provided by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, and Suffolk County Crime Laboratory.

Number of Chromosomes: 300

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Illinois

Sample UID: SA001232I

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans from Illinois, USA. Samples were provided by the Illinois State Police.

Number of Chromosomes: 312

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Minnesota

Sample UID: SA001233J

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans from Minnesota, USA. Samples provided by the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension.

Number of Chromosomes: 300

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA001344M

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated African American individuals throughout the United States, with no geographical preference, provided by the Laboratory Corporation of America.

Number of Chromosomes: 390

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Holt CL, Stauffer C, Wallin JM, Lazaruk KD, Nguyen T, Budowle B, Walsh PS. "Practical applications of genotypic surveys for forensic STR testing". Forensic Sci Int. 112:91-109. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: New York Black

Sample UID: SA001454O

Sample Description:This sample consists of volunteer Black donors from New York, USA.

Number of Chromosomes: 156

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Liang W, Lv M, Xu Y, Liao M, Zhou B, Jia Y, Lin Z "STR Loci D19S400's allele frequency distribution in ten populations.". J Forensic Sci 50:725. (2005)


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA001647S

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yoshiura KI et al. "A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type.". Nat Genet. 38:324-330. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA001672Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans (subset from NA17100-17199) from the Coriell Institute.

Number of Chromosomes: 84

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shriver MD, Mei R, Parra EJ, Sonpar V, Halder I, Tishkoff SA, Schurr TG, Zhadanov SI, Osipova LP, Brutsaert TD, Friedlaender J, Jorde LB, Watkins WS, Bamshad MJ, Gutierrez G, Loi H, Matsuzaki H, Kittles RA, Argyropoulos G, Fernandez JR, Akey JM, Jones KW. "Large-scale SNP analysis reveals clustered and continuous patterns of human genetic variation". Hum Genomics. 2:81-89. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA001823O

Sample Description:This sample consists of African American individuals blood samples that were collected at the University of Pennsylvania and Thomas Jefferson University in accordance with the protocol that was approved by the IRBs of these institutions.

Number of Chromosomes: 178

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Dahl JP, Kampman KM, Oslin DW, Weller AE, Lohoff FW, Ferraro TN, O'Brien CP, Berrettini WH "Association of a polymorphism in the Homer1 gene with cocaine dependence in an African American population". Psychiatr Genet. 15:277-83. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA001729T

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans obtained from the Coriell Cell Repository, panel ID TSC_42_AA.

Number of Chromosomes: 84

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Nadkarni NA, Weale ME, von Schantz M, Thomas MG. "Evolution of a length polymorphism in the human PER3 gene, a component of the circadian system". J Biol Rhythms. 20:490-499. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: South Carolina Blacks

Sample UID: SA002349S

Sample Description:This sample consists of South Carolina Blacks. Informed consent were obtained from the individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 52

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Su B, Sun G, Lu D, Xiao J, Hu F, Chakraborty R, Deka R, Jin L "Distribution of three HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A, CCR2-641, and CCR5-delta32) in global populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 8:975-9. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African-American

Sample UID: SA001989B

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy African Americans recruited from the State University of New York Health Science Center (Brooklyn, NY) and the Westchester Medical Center (Valhalla, NY).

Number of Chromosomes: 312

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jain S, Tang X, Narayanan CS, Agarwal Y, Peterson SM, Brown CD, Ott J, Kumar A. "Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism at -217 affects basal promoter activity and is associated with hypertension in African-Americans". J Biol Chem. 277:36889-36896. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: USA, Atlanta, Blacks

Sample UID: SA002710K

Sample Description:This sample consists of specimens chosen from newborns whose mothers resided in metropolitan Atlanta. Specimens from the blood spots left over from newborn screening were used. This study was conducted under the auspices of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defect Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) and was coordinated through its head office, the International Center on Birth Defects. Local review boards approved the study.In all cases personal identifiers were removed before data were provided to ICBD for epidemiological analysis.

Number of Chromosomes: 596

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wilcken B, Bamforth F, Li Z, Zhu H, Ritvanen A, Renlund M, Stoll C, Alembik Y, Dott B, Czeizel AE, Gelman-Kohan Z, Scarano G, Bianca S, Ettore G, Tenconi R, Bellato S, Scala I, Mutchinick OM, López MA, de Walle H, Hofstra R, Joutchenko L, Kavteladze L, Bermejo E, Martínez-Frías ML, Gallagher M, Erickson JD, Vollset SE, Mastroiacovo P, Andria G, Botto LD. "Geographical and ethnic variation of the 677C>T allele of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR): findings from over 7000 newborns from 16 areas world wide". J Med Genet. 40:619-25.. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African ancestry, USA

Sample UID: SA003771S

Sample Description:This sample consists of autochthonous, unrelated and healthy donors of African ancestry individuals from USA who gave their informed consent.

Number of Chromosomes: 76

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Predazzi IM, Martínez-Labarga C, Vecchione L, Mango R, Ciccacci C, Amati F, Ottoni C, Crawford MH, Rickards O, Romeo F, Novelli G. "Population differences in allele frequencies at the OLR1 locus may suggest geographic disparities in cardiovascular risk events". Ann Hum Biol. 37:136-48. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA003919W

Sample Description:This sample consists of African-Americans from North Carolina,United States.

Number of Chromosomes: 252

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Stephens EA, Taylor JA, Kaplan N, Yang CH, Hsieh LL, Lucier GW, Bell DA. "Ethnic variation in the CYP2E1 gene: polymorphism analysis of 695 African-Americans, European-Americans and Taiwanese". Pharmacogenetics. 4:185-92. (1994) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Africans(AFR)

Sample UID: SA003520K

Sample Description:This sample of Africans (AFA) are from the Coriell Institute for Medical Research and are based on the self-identified ethnic affliation. The subjects were all healthy and unrelated.

Number of Chromosomes: 192

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Silva MC, Zuccherato LW, Soares-Souza GB, Vieira ZM, Cabrera L, Herrera P, Balqui J, Romero C, Jahuira H, Gilman RH, Martins ML, Tarazona-Santos E. "Development of two multiplex mini-sequencing panels of ancestry informative SNPs for studies in Latin Americans: an application to populations of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil)". Genet Mol Res. 9:2069-85. (2010) Online citation.

- Tian C, Hinds DA, Shigeta R, Kittles R, Ballinger DG, Seldin MF "A genomewide single-nucleotide-polymorphism panel with high ancestry information for African American admixture mapping". Am J Hum Genet. 79:640-9. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA003982W

Sample Description:This sample consists of African-Americans.

Number of Chromosomes: N.A

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Publication pending


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA003565T

Sample Description:This sample consists of African American DNA samples from the Coriell Institute for Medical Research. The DNA samples came from anonymous, unrelated, US residents who gave informed consent to be part of DNA Polymorphism Discovery Resource and have ancestors from major geographic regions of the world.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tanus-Santos JE, Desai M, Flockhart DA. "Effects of ethnicity on the distribution of clinically relevant endothelial nitric oxide variants". Pharmacogenetics 11:719-25. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA003914R

Sample Description:This sample consists of African American controls who were part of a study conducted at temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New york and Ear Infirmary, New York.

Number of Chromosomes: 310

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Liu S, Park JY, Schantz SP, Stern JC, Lazarus P. "Elucidation of CYP2E1 5' regulatory RsaI/Pstl allelic variants and their role in risk for oral cancer". Oral Oncol 37:437-45. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA003924S

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans from baltimore autopsy donor program and also from Baltimore case-control study .

Number of Chromosomes: 174

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kato S, Shields PG, Caporaso NE, Hoover RN, Trump BF, Sugimura H, Weston A, Harris CC. "Cytochrome P450IIE1 genetic polymorphisms, racial variation, and lung cancer risk". Cancer Res. 52:6712-5. (1992) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African American

Sample UID: SA003926U

Sample Description:This sample consists of controls from a case control study conducted at the University of Texas M.D.Anderson Cancer Center and various hospitals from Houston, Galveston and San Antonia,Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 228

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wu X, Shi H, Jiang H, Kemp B, Hong WK, Delclos GL, Spitz MR. "Associations between cytochrome P4502E1 genotype, mutagen sensitivity, cigarette smoking and susceptibility to lung cancer". Carcinogenesis. 19:967-73. (1997) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Black American

Sample UID: SA002081L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Black American women.

Number of Chromosomes: 216

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Stoler JM, Ryan LM, Holmes LB "Alcohol dehydrogenase 2 genotypes, maternal alcohol use, and infant outcome". J Pediatr. 141:780-5. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA003146O

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans who were part of the CARDIA study. This study is a National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute funded longitudinal epidemiological study from 4 clinical centers (Birmingham,AL; Chicago,IL;Minneapolis,MN; and Oakland,CA).

Number of Chromosomes: 1174

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tsai MY, Loria CM, Cao J, Kim Y, Siscovick D, Schreiner PJ, Hanson NQ "Clinical utility of genotyping the 677C>T variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in humans is decreased in the post-folic acid fortification era". J Nutr. 139:33-7. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African-Americans

Sample UID: SA003656U

Sample Description:This sample consists of population of African-Americans undergoing colonoscopy screening at the University Hospitals Health system(UHHS) in Cleveland,Ohio.

Number of Chromosomes: 938

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Nock NL, Plummer SJ, Thompson CL, Casey G, Li L. "FTO Polymorphisms are Associated with Adult Body Mass Index (BMI) and Colorectal Adenomas in African-Americans". Carcinogenesis. (Epub ahead of print) (2011) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA003660P

Sample Description:The study population consists of African-Americans individuals participating in a prospective urban-suburban school based study of carbohydrate metabolism (Princeton School District study, Cincannati, Ohio).

Number of Chromosomes: 994

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Bollepalli S, Dolan LM, Deka R, Martin LJ. "Association of FTO gene variants with adiposity in African-American adolescents". Obesity (Silver Spring). 18:1959-63. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA003455R

Sample Description:This sample consists of anonymous blood samples with self identified ethnicities (African-Americans) that were purchased from Interstate Blood Bank, Inc(Memphis, TN) and Millennium Biotech, Inc (Ft.lauderdale, FL).

Number of Chromosomes: 142

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Vallone PM, Decker AE, Butler JM. "Allele frequencies for 70 autosomal SNP loci with U.S. Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic samples". Forensic Sci Int 149:279-86. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Black Americans (Killeen, TX)

Sample UID: SA002666U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Black Americans from Killeen, Texas. Blood samples were collected from unrelated individuals at the Interstate Blood Bank Incorporated for that ethnic group in Killeen, Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 310

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Doucette-Stamm LA, Blakely DJ, Tian J, Mockus S, Mao JI. "Population genetic study of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1)". Genet Epidemiol. 12:303-8.. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Black Americans (Memphis, TN)

Sample UID: SA002667V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Black Americans from Memphis,TN. Blood samples were collected from unrelated individuals at the Interstate Blood Bank Incorporated for that ethnic group in Memphis,TN.

Number of Chromosomes: 294

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Doucette-Stamm LA, Blakely DJ, Tian J, Mockus S, Mao JI. "Population genetic study of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1)". Genet Epidemiol. 12:303-8.. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Black Americans (Miami, FL)

Sample UID: SA002668W

Sample Description:This sample consists of Black Americans from Miami, FL. Blood samples were collected from unrelated individuals at the Interstate Blood Bank Incorporated for that ethnic group in Miami, FL.

Number of Chromosomes: 310

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Doucette-Stamm LA, Blakely DJ, Tian J, Mockus S, Mao JI. "Population genetic study of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1)". Genet Epidemiol. 12:303-8.. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African-American

Sample UID: SA002232J

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated African-Americans.

Number of Chromosomes: 174

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Salem AH, Batzer MA. "Distribution of the HIV resistance CCR5-Delta32 allele among Egyptians and Syrians". Mutat Res. 616:175-80. (2007) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African Ancestry in SW USA (ASW)

Sample UID: SA003386U

Sample Description:This sample consists of African ancestry individuals in SouthWest USA. All the individuals identified themselves as having four African-American grandparents who were born in the same general area of the Southwest USA.

Note: The allele frequencies linked to this sample were based on calculation from Hapmap project website.

Number of Chromosomes: 110

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- International HapMap Consortium, Frazer KA, Ballinger DG, et al. "A second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs.". Nature. 449:851-61.. (2007) Online citation.

- The International HapMap Consortium. "The International HapMap Project.". Nature. 426:789-96. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Africans (AFR1)

Sample UID: SA003517Q

Sample Description:This sample is part of the SNP500Cancer initiative study. The SNP500Cancer panel is a set of reference samples from four ethnically diverse groups. The anonymized samples are obtained from the Coriell Cell Repositories (Coriell Institute for Medical research). This sample represent 24 African/African-Americans.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Coriell Biorepository collection Online citation.

- Packer BR, Yeager M, Staats B, Welch R, Crenshaw A, Kiley M, Eckert A, Beerman M, Miller E, Bergen A, Rothman N, Strausberg R, Chanock SJ. "SNP500Cancer: a public resource for sequence validation and assay development for genetic variation in candidate genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 32:D528-32. (2004) Online citation.

- Silva MC, Zuccherato LW, Soares-Souza GB, Vieira ZM, Cabrera L, Herrera P, Balqui J, Romero C, Jahuira H, Gilman RH, Martins ML, Tarazona-Santos E. "Development of two multiplex mini-sequencing panels of ancestry informative SNPs for studies in Latin Americans: an application to populations of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil)". Genet Mol Res. 9:2069-85. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African Americans(AFR)

Sample UID: SA004628U

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans. The samples used for this study were collected in accordance with the policies and procedures approved by the Institutional Review Board for the University of North Texas Health Science Center in Fort Worth, Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 334

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Churchill JD, Novroski NMM, King JL, Seah LH, Budowle B "Population and performance analyses of four major populations with Illumina's FGx Forensic Genomics System". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 30:81-92. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African Ancestry in SW USA (ASW)

Sample UID: SA004047P

Sample Description:This sample was collected in the Southwest USA.The samples were collected from individuals who identified themselves primarily as African-American.

This sample is part of the 1000 genomes collections.

Number of Chromosomes: 122

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of SA003386U

References:
- 1000 genomes phase1 samples data Online citation.

- 1000genomes project samples page Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA004067R

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated individuals of African-American ancestry residing in Texas. The samples were anonymized and collected in accordance with methods approved by the Institutional Review Board for the University of North Texas Science center.

Number of Chromosomes: 144

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Larue BL, Ge J, King JL, Budowle B. "A validation study of the Qiagen Investigator DIPplex® kit; an INDEL-based assay for human identification". Int J Legal Med. (epub,ahead of print) (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African American(AFA)

Sample UID: SA004402K

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans. This sample was provided by B.Budowle, University of North texas to Caixia Li's group.

Number of Chromosomes: 188

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wei YL, Wei L, Zhao L, Sun QF, Jiang L, Zhang T, Liu HB, Chen JG, Ye J, Hu L, Li CX "A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents". Int J Legal Med. 130:27-37. (2016) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA004169U

Sample Description:This sample consists of DNA samples of African American individuals from Coriell Cell Repository.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tomoyasu Y, Yamaguchi T, Tajima A, Nakajima T, Inoue I, Maki K. "Further evidence for an association between mandibular height and the growth hormone receptor gene in a Japanese population". Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 136:536-41. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA004074P

Sample Description:This sample consists of African Americans. This sample is part of the NIST sample collection.

Number of Chromosomes: 520

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Fondevila M, Pereira R, Gusmao L, Phillips C, Lareu MV, Carracedo A, Butler JM, Vallone PM "Forensic performance of two insertion-deletion marker assays ". Int J Legal Med. 126:725-37. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: African Americans

Sample UID: SA004369W

Sample Description:This sample is part of KiddLab samples collection and is a subset of SA000101C.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000101C

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan