ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
Hispanic AmericanPO000119LSPANISHIndo-European

Synonyms: La Raza de Bronce ; Latino ; Chicano ; Hispanic ; Mexican American ;
Geographic Location1:  63N, 122W; 27N, 72W  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Description Record     Who Are Hispanic Americans? Record    
References: See references
Population Description: 

There are several terms that are occasionally used interchangeably with Hispanic, such as Latino and Chicano. Latino refers to people of Latin American origin and Chicano refers to Mexican Americans. In this context, the term Hispanic is used to refer to the broad range of people of Spanish speaking heritage.

The history of Hispanic Americans begins in the 1500's when Spanish explorers established colonies in the Southeast and Southwest of what is now the United States. These settlements slowly grew over 100's of years. In 1821 Mexico declared independence and inherited large territories. The United States went to War with Mexico in 1846. The United States won the war and was awarded the territory which today comprises the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and parts of Wyoming. All of the Mexicans living in this territory were granted U.S. citizenship. The early 1900's saw an increase in the number of Mexican immigrants who settled in the Southwestern United States. Due to strict immigration laws and border patrols Mexican immigration began to decrease. Through out the 1900's, Mexican Americans and Hispanic Americans in general experienced severe discrimination. Such forms of discrimination included employment, repatriation to Mexico and public segregation. The mid-1900's saw a great surge of both legal and illegal Hispanic immigrants come into the United States. However, the immigrants were not just Mexicans but also included a large number of Puerto Ricans and Cubans. Although the United Stated attempted to control illegal immigration the illegal immigration rates continued to rise. People from Latin America continued to immigrate to the United States into the late 1900's. Immigrants now included people from countries in Central America and South America such as El Salvador, Panama, Bolivia, and Columbia. Caribbean countries, like the Dominican Republic, also had people immigrating to the United States.

Today, many Hispanic Americans live in urban areas such as New York City, Chicago, Miami and Los Angeles. Most of Hispanics still maintain many of the customs of their homeland such as food, music and clothes. The majority of Hispanics speaks both English and Spanish and has strong ties to the Roman Catholic religion. Hispanic Americans are the nation's largest minority group (2000 census) and continue to immigrate to the United States in large numbers.


References:
- Fox, Geoffrey "Hispanic Nation: Culture, Politics & the Constructing of Identity ". Secaucus, NJ: Carol Publishing Group
(1996)

- Gracia, Jorge J.E. "Hispanic/Latino Identity: A Philosophical Perspective". Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc. (2000)

- Weyr, Thomas "Hispanic U.S.A.: Breaking the Melting Pot". New York: Harper & Row, Publishers (1988)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic, mixed

Sample UID: SA000659U

Sample Description:This sample was collected from normal Hispanics of full-blooded Mexican or native Texas Hispanic extraction, all living in Houston, Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Milewicz DM, Byers PH, Reveille J, Hughes AL, Duvic M. "A dimorphic Alu Sb-like insertion in COL3A1 is ethnic-specific". J Mol Evol 42:117-23. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic Americans

Sample UID: SA000662O

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the United States with predominantly Mexican ancestry. The samples were collected in the State of Michigan, which is located in the mid-west region of the United States.

Number of Chromosomes: 144

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of sample SA000495S

References:
- Arcot SS, Adamson AW, Risch GW, LaFleur J, Robichaux MB, Lamerdin JE, Carrano AV, Batzer MA "High-resolution cartography of recently integrated human chromosome 19-specific Alu fossils". J Mol Biol 281:843-56. (1998) Online citation.

- Batzer MA, Arcot SS, Phinney JW, Alegria-Hartman M, Kass DH, Milligan SM, Kimpton C, Gill P, Hochmeister M, Ioannou PA, Herrera RJ, Boudreau DA, Scheer WD, Keats BJB, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Genetic variation of recent Alu Insertions in human populations". J Mol Evol 42:22-29. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanics Americans, SLVDS

Sample UID: SA000232H

Sample Description:Hispanics from the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study (SLVDS). The SLVDS was designed to examine non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and was based on a geographic case-control study. The participants were taken from the counties of Alamosa and Conejos in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado. The subjects used in this study were normoglycemic individuals from the SLVDS.

Number of Chromosomes: 524

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chiu L, Hamman RF, Kamboh MI. "Apolipoprotein A Polymorphism and Plasma Lipoprotein(a) Concentrations in Non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics". Hum. Biol. 72:821-835. (2000) Online citation.

- Hamman, R.F., J.A. Marshall, J. Baxter et al. "Methods and prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a biethnic Colorado population". Am. J. Epid. 129:295-311. (1989) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic American, Southern California

Sample UID: SA000195P

Sample Description:Hispanic American sample of (n=190) volunteers from Southern California, all apparently healthy. Each subject provided a blood sample, after providing informed consent and self-report of his or her ethnicity.

Number of Chromosomes: 380

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Goddard KA, Hopkins PJ, Hall JM, Witte JS. "Linkage Disequilibrium and Allele-Frequency Distributions for 114 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Five Populations ". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66:216-234. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic American, DNA

Sample UID: SA000138M

Sample Description:Hispanic American sample, part of a collection of DNA purified samples from anonymous blood donors in community-based blood drives in southeastern and central Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 146

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Bonnen PE, Story MD, Ashorn CL, Buchholz TA, Weil MM, Nelson DL. "Haplotypes at ATM Identify Coding-Sequence Variation and Indicate a Region of Extensive Linkage Disequilibrium". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:1437-1451. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanics

Sample UID: SA000495S

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the United States with predominantly Mexican ancestry. The samples were collected in the State of Michigan, which is located in the mid-west region of the United States.

Number of Chromosomes: 88

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Batzer MA, Arcot SS, Phinney JW, Alegria-Hartman M, Kass DH, Milligan SM, Kimpton C, Gill P, Hochmeister M, Ioannou PA, Herrera RJ, Boudreau DA, Scheer WD, Keats BJB, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Genetic variation of recent Alu Insertions in human populations". J Mol Evol 42:22-29. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic American

Sample UID: SA000551L

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the United States with predominantly Mexican ancestry. The samples were collected in the State of Michigan, which is located in the mid-west region of the United States.

Number of Chromosomes: 144

Relation to Other Samples: Superset of sample SA000495S

References:
- Batzer MA, Arcot SS, Phinney JW, Alegria-Hartman M, Kass DH, Milligan SM, Kimpton C, Gill P, Hochmeister M, Ioannou PA, Herrera RJ, Boudreau DA, Scheer WD, Keats BJB, Deininger PL, Stoneking M. "Genetic variation of recent Alu Insertions in human populations". J Mol Evol 42:22-29. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic

Sample UID: SA001246N

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated North American Hispanic individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 1988

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Einum DD, Scarpetta MA. "Genetic analysis of large data sets of North American Black, Caucasian, and Hispanic populations at 13 CODIS STR loci". J Forensic Sci. 49:1381-5. (2004) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic

Sample UID: SA001167P

Sample Description:This sample consists of Hispanics provided by Dr. A. Eisenberg, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas (USA).

Number of Chromosomes: 418

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Moretti TR, Baumstark AL, Defenbaugh DA, Keys KM. "Population data on the thirteen CODIS core short tandem repeat loci in African Americans, U.S. Caucasians, Hispanics, Bahamians, Jamaicans, and Trinidadians". J Forensic Sci. 44:1277-1286. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: California

Sample UID: SA001248P

Sample Description:This sample consists of U.S. Hispanics from California, USA. Samples provided by the California Department of Justice, and Orange County Sheriff's-Coroner Laboratory.

Number of Chromosomes: 400

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Florida

Sample UID: SA001249Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of U.S. Hispanics from Florida, USA. Samples provided by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Metro-Dade Police Department/Miami Children's Research Institute, and Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office.

Number of Chromosomes: 480

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: New York

Sample UID: SA001250I

Sample Description:This sample consists of U.S. Hispanics from New York, USA. Samples were provided by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, and Suffolk County Crime Laboratory.

Number of Chromosomes: 304

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Michigan

Sample UID: SA001251J

Sample Description:This sample consists of U.S. Hispanics from Michigan, USA. Samples provided by the Michigan State Police, and Detroit Police Department.

Number of Chromosomes: 300

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Minnesota

Sample UID: SA001252K

Sample Description:This sample consists of U.S. Hispanics from Minnesota, USA. Samples provided by the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension.

Number of Chromosomes: 298

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Arizona

Sample UID: SA001253L

Sample Description:This sample consists of U.S. Hispanics from Arizona, USA. Samples provided by the Arizona Department of Public Safety.

Number of Chromosomes: 468

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Budowle B, Shea B, Niezgoda S, Chakraborty R. "CODIS STR loci data from 41 sample populations". J Forensic Sci. 46:453-489. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: USA, Atlanta, Hispanics

Sample UID: SA002711L

Sample Description:This sample consists of specimens chosen from newborns whose mothers resided in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Specimens from the blood spots left over from newborn screening were used. This study was conducted under the auspices of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defect Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) and was coordinated through its head office, the International Center on Birth Defects.

Number of Chromosomes: 124

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wilcken B, Bamforth F, Li Z, Zhu H, Ritvanen A, Renlund M, Stoll C, Alembik Y, Dott B, Czeizel AE, Gelman-Kohan Z, Scarano G, Bianca S, Ettore G, Tenconi R, Bellato S, Scala I, Mutchinick OM, López MA, de Walle H, Hofstra R, Joutchenko L, Kavteladze L, Bermejo E, Martínez-Frías ML, Gallagher M, Erickson JD, Vollset SE, Mastroiacovo P, Andria G, Botto LD. "Geographical and ethnic variation of the 677C>T allele of 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR): findings from over 7000 newborns from 16 areas world wide". J Med Genet. 40:619-25.. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mexican Americans

Sample UID: SA003927V

Sample Description:This sample consists of controls from a case control study conducted at the University of Texas M.D.Anderson Cancer Center and various hospitals from Houston, Galveston and San Antonia,Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 184

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wu X, Shi H, Jiang H, Kemp B, Hong WK, Delclos GL, Spitz MR. "Associations between cytochrome P4502E1 genotype, mutagen sensitivity, cigarette smoking and susceptibility to lung cancer". Carcinogenesis. 19:967-73. (1997) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanics (Killeen, TX)

Sample UID: SA002672R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Hispanic Americans from Killeen,TX. Blood samples were collected from unrelated individuals at the Interstate Blood Bank Incorporated for that ethnic group in Killeen,TX.

Number of Chromosomes: 138

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Doucette-Stamm LA, Blakely DJ, Tian J, Mockus S, Mao JI. "Population genetic study of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1)". Genet Epidemiol. 12:303-8.. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanics (Miami, FL)

Sample UID: SA002673S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Caucasians from Miami, FL. Blood samples were collected from unrelated individuals at the Interstate Blood Bank Incorporated for that ethnic group in Miami, FL.

Number of Chromosomes: 162

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Doucette-Stamm LA, Blakely DJ, Tian J, Mockus S, Mao JI. "Population genetic study of the human dopamine transporter gene (DAT1)". Genet Epidemiol. 12:303-8.. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mexican-American

Sample UID: SA002122H

Sample Description:This sample consists of group of healthy subjects of Mexican-American descent.

Number of Chromosomes: 216

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wan YJ, Poland RE, Lin KM "Genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1, ADH2, and ALDH2 in Mexican-Americans". Genet Test. 2:79-83. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic American

Sample UID: SA003457T

Sample Description:This sample consists of anonymous blood samples with self identified ethnicities (Hispanic Americans) that were purchased from Interstate Blood Bank, Inc(Memphis, TN) and Millennium Biotech, Inc (Ft.lauderdale, FL).

Number of Chromosomes: 88

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Vallone PM, Decker AE, Butler JM. "Allele frequencies for 70 autosomal SNP loci with U.S. Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic samples". Forensic Sci Int 149:279-86. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mexican Ancestry in LA,USA (MEX)

Sample UID: SA003387V

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals of Mexican ancestry in LA, California,USA. The individuals identified themselves as having at least three out of four grandparents who were born in Mexico.

Note: The allele frequencies linked to this sample were based on calculation from Hapmap project website.

Number of Chromosomes: 120

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- International HapMap Consortium, Frazer KA, Ballinger DG, et al. "A second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs.". Nature. 449:851-61.. (2007) Online citation.

- The International HapMap Consortium. "The International HapMap Project.". Nature. 426:789-96. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic (Latin Americans)

Sample UID: SA003519S

Sample Description:This sample is part of the SNP500Cancer initiative study. The SNP500Cancer panel is a set of reference samples from four ethnically diverse groups. The anonymized samples are obtained from the Coriell Cell Repositories (Coriell Institute for Medical research). This sample represent 23 Latin Americans catalogued as Hispanics in the SNP500Cancer initiative.

Number of Chromosomes: 46

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Coriell Biorepository collection Online citation.

- Packer BR, Yeager M, Staats B, Welch R, Crenshaw A, Kiley M, Eckert A, Beerman M, Miller E, Bergen A, Rothman N, Strausberg R, Chanock SJ. "SNP500Cancer: a public resource for sequence validation and assay development for genetic variation in candidate genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 32:D528-32. (2004) Online citation.

- Silva MC, Zuccherato LW, Soares-Souza GB, Vieira ZM, Cabrera L, Herrera P, Balqui J, Romero C, Jahuira H, Gilman RH, Martins ML, Tarazona-Santos E. "Development of two multiplex mini-sequencing panels of ancestry informative SNPs for studies in Latin Americans: an application to populations of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil)". Genet Mol Res. 9:2069-85. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Southwest Hispanics

Sample UID: SA004630N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Southwest Hispanics. The samples used for this study were collected in accordance with the policies and procedures approved by the Institutional Review Board for the University of North Texas Health Science Center in Fort Worth, Texas.

Number of Chromosomes: 378

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Churchill JD, Novroski NMM, King JL, Seah LH, Budowle B "Population and performance analyses of four major populations with Illumina's FGx Forensic Genomics System". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 30:81-92. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Southwestern Hispanics

Sample UID: SA004070L

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Southwestern Hispanics residing in Texas. The samples were anonymized and collected in accordance with methods approved by the Institutional Review Board for the University of North Texas Science center.

Number of Chromosomes: 138

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Larue BL, Ge J, King JL, Budowle B. "A validation study of the Qiagen Investigator DIPplex® kit; an INDEL-based assay for human identification". Int J Legal Med. (epub,ahead of print) (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanic in Latin America(HLA)

Sample UID: SA004404M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Hispanics. This sample was provided by B.Budowle, University of North texas to Caixia Li's group.

Number of Chromosomes: 176

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Wei YL, Wei L, Zhao L, Sun QF, Jiang L, Zhang T, Liu HB, Chen JG, Ye J, Hu L, Li CX "A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents". Int J Legal Med. 130:27-37. (2016) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispanics

Sample UID: SA004171N

Sample Description:This sample consists of DNA samples of Hispanics obtained from the Coriell Cell repository.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Tomoyasu Y, Yamaguchi T, Tajima A, Nakajima T, Inoue I, Maki K. "Further evidence for an association between mandibular height and the growth hormone receptor gene in a Japanese population". Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 136:536-41. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hispancs

Sample UID: SA004073O

Sample Description:This sample consists of U.S Hispanics. This sample is part of the NIST sample collection.

Number of Chromosomes: 280

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Fondevila M, Pereira R, Gusmao L, Phillips C, Lareu MV, Carracedo A, Butler JM, Vallone PM "Forensic performance of two insertion-deletion marker assays ". Int J Legal Med. 126:725-37. (2012) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

Top


© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan