ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
Jews, SephardicPO000164LLadinoINDO-EUROPEAN

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  unlisted, unlisted; unlisted, unlisted  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources:  Sephardic Jewry Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record     Origins of Sephardic Jews Record    
References: See references
Population Description: Sephardic Jews are historically descendants of the Jews who came from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) before 1492. The word Sefard, itself, was the name for the Jews in this region. However, it now includes communities in North Africa, Israel, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Greece, and the Near East. One of the main reasons that Sephardic Jews are spread throughout so many parts of the world is that they are descendants of the Jews who lived in Spain or Portugal prior to the expulsion of Jews in 1492 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Sephardic Jews have a distinct language called Ladino, or Judeo-Spanish. This is a dialect of Castilian Spanish with Hebrew and Turkish elements. They also tend to speak Arabic. As opposed to other Jewish practices, such as Ashkenazim, the Sephardic practice is not religiously sub-divided. Although there are some extremes within its practice, the Sephardic faith is relatively homogenous as an Orthodox practice. The Sephardic Jews are also distinguished from the Ashkenazi in that they use different religious melodies during their services, practice different traditions at celebrations and festivals, and they have distinctive Hebrew pronunciations. Recently, the term Sephardic has become used as a label to refer to those Jews who are not Ashkenazi. There is much tension in many communities throughout the world as to who is an authentic Sephardic Jew.
References:
- Benbassa E. "Jews of the Balkans. Sephardi Jewry : a history of the Judeo-Spanish community, 14th--20th centuries / Esther Benbassa and Aron Rodrigue". Berkeley : University of California Press (1999)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sephardi Jews, Egypt

Sample UID: SA000237M

Sample Description:Sephardi Jews from Egypt

Number of Chromosomes: 60

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ciminelli BM, Jodice C, Scozzari R, Corbo RM, Nahum M, Pompei F, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA, Santolamazza C, Morpurgo GP, Modiano G. "Latitude-correlated genetic polymorphisms: selection or gene flow?". Hum. Biol. 72:557-571. (2000) Online citation.

- Domenici R, Spinetti I, Bargagna M et al. " Population genetic studies on Jews. I. The [alpha]2HS serum glycoprotein, a polymorphism strongly correlated with latitude". Gene Geography 4:99-111. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sephardi Jews, Tunisia and Algeria

Sample UID: SA000235K

Sample Description:Sephardi Jews from Tunisia and Algeria living at 36 degrees North.

Number of Chromosomes: 158

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ciminelli BM, Jodice C, Scozzari R, Corbo RM, Nahum M, Pompei F, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA, Santolamazza C, Morpurgo GP, Modiano G. "Latitude-correlated genetic polymorphisms: selection or gene flow?". Hum. Biol. 72:557-571. (2000) Online citation.

- Domenici R, Spinetti I, Bargagna M et al. " Population genetic studies on Jews. I. The [alpha]2HS serum glycoprotein, a polymorphism strongly correlated with latitude". Gene Geography 4:99-111. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sephardi Jews, Greece and Turkey

Sample UID: SA000239O

Sample Description:Sephardi Jews from Greece and Turkey living at 40? North.

Number of Chromosomes: 142

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ciminelli BM, Jodice C, Scozzari R, Corbo RM, Nahum M, Pompei F, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA, Santolamazza C, Morpurgo GP, Modiano G. "Latitude-correlated genetic polymorphisms: selection or gene flow?". Hum. Biol. 72:557-571. (2000) Online citation.

- Domenici R, Spinetti I, Bargagna M et al. " Population genetic studies on Jews. I. The [alpha]2HS serum glycoprotein, a polymorphism strongly correlated with latitude". Gene Geography 4:99-111. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sephardi Jews, Morocco

Sample UID: SA000234J

Sample Description:Sephardi Jews from Morocco at 34 degrees north.

Number of Chromosomes: 632

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ciminelli BM, Jodice C, Scozzari R, Corbo RM, Nahum M, Pompei F, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA, Santolamazza C, Morpurgo GP, Modiano G. "Latitude-correlated genetic polymorphisms: selection or gene flow?". Hum. Biol. 72:557-571. (2000) Online citation.

- Domenici R, Spinetti I, Bargagna M et al. " Population genetic studies on Jews. I. The [alpha]2HS serum glycoprotein, a polymorphism strongly correlated with latitude". Gene Geography 4:99-111. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sephardi Jews, North Africa (pooled)

Sample UID: SA000238N

Sample Description:Sephardi Jews from North Africa

Number of Chromosomes: 948

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ciminelli BM, Jodice C, Scozzari R, Corbo RM, Nahum M, Pompei F, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA, Santolamazza C, Morpurgo GP, Modiano G. "Latitude-correlated genetic polymorphisms: selection or gene flow?". Hum. Biol. 72:557-571. (2000) Online citation.

- Domenici R, Spinetti I, Bargagna M et al. " Population genetic studies on Jews. I. The [alpha]2HS serum glycoprotein, a polymorphism strongly correlated with latitude". Gene Geography 4:99-111. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sephardi Jews, Libya

Sample UID: SA000236L

Sample Description:Sephardi Jews from Libya living at 33 degrees North.

Number of Chromosomes: 86

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ciminelli BM, Jodice C, Scozzari R, Corbo RM, Nahum M, Pompei F, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA, Santolamazza C, Morpurgo GP, Modiano G. "Latitude-correlated genetic polymorphisms: selection or gene flow?". Hum. Biol. 72:557-571. (2000) Online citation.

- Domenici R, Spinetti I, Bargagna M et al. " Population genetic studies on Jews. I. The [alpha]2HS serum glycoprotein, a polymorphism strongly correlated with latitude". Gene Geography 4:99-111. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Jews, Near East (pooled)

Sample UID: SA000240G

Sample Description:Jews from the Near East pooled data from sample from Iran, Iraq, and Syria.

Number of Chromosomes: 396

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ciminelli BM, Jodice C, Scozzari R, Corbo RM, Nahum M, Pompei F, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA, Santolamazza C, Morpurgo GP, Modiano G. "Latitude-correlated genetic polymorphisms: selection or gene flow?". Hum. Biol. 72:557-571. (2000) Online citation.

- Domenici R, Spinetti I, Bargagna M et al. " Population genetic studies on Jews. I. The [alpha]2HS serum glycoprotein, a polymorphism strongly correlated with latitude". Gene Geography 4:99-111. (1990) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Roman Jews

Sample UID: SA000096P

Sample Description:Roman Jews collected by Maria New; cell lines established by Dr. J. R. Kidd.

Number of Chromosomes: 54

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.

- Publication status unknown.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sephardic Jews

Sample UID: SA002212H

Sample Description:This sample was collected from blood donors at two major blood banks in Israel and consists of Sephardic Jews whose parents were born in Mediterranean or Middle-Eastern countries. Informed consent were obtained from all the individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 514

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Maayan S, Zhang L, Shinar E, Ho J, He T, Manni N, Kostrikis LG, Neumann AU. "Evidence for recent selection of the CCR5-delta 32 deletion from differences in its frequency between Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews". Genes Immun. 1:358-61. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sephardic Jews

Sample UID: SA002085P

Sample Description:This sample consists of randomly selected Sephardic Jews.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Hasin D, Aharonovich E, Liu X, Mamman Z, Matseoane K, Carr L, Li TK "Alcohol and ADH2 in Israel: Ashkenazis, Sephardics, and recent Russian immigrants". Am J Psychiatry. 159:1432-4. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Roman Jew

Sample UID: SA004701M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Roman Jewish individuals from South Europe. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 28

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan