ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
BrahminPO000181K

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  35N, 68E; 8N, 97E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: 
References: See references
Population Description: Being curated
References:


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA000618P

Sample Description:This sample was collected from unrelated individuals belonging to the Brahmin caste from the city of Bombay, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 104

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Antunez-de-Mayolo G, Antunez-de-Mayolo A, Antunez-de-Mayolo P, Papiha SS, Hammer M, Yunis JJ, Yunis EJ, Damodaran C, de Pancorbo MM, Caeiro JL, Puzyrev VP, Herrera RJ. "Phylogenetics of worldwide human populations as determined by polymorphic Alu insertions". Electrophoresis 23:3346-3356. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Iyer

Sample UID: SA000741M

Sample Description:The Iyer represent a Upper Caste in Southern India. They have a Dravidian Linguistic Affiliation. This sample was drawn with informed consent from individuals. The individuals were unrelated to the first cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Basu A, Mukherjee N, Roy S, Sengupta S, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M, Dey B, Roy M, Roy B, Bhattacharyya NP, Roychoudhury S, Majumder PP "Ethnic India: A Genomic View, with Special Reference to Peopling and Structure". Genome Res 13:2277-2290. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Iyengar

Sample UID: SA000747S

Sample Description:The Iyengar represents a upper caste in South India. They have a Dravidian Linguistic affiliation. This sample was drawn with informed consent from individuals. The individuals were unrelated to the first cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 102

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Basu A, Mukherjee N, Roy S, Sengupta S, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M, Dey B, Roy M, Roy B, Bhattacharyya NP, Roychoudhury S, Majumder PP "Ethnic India: A Genomic View, with Special Reference to Peopling and Structure". Genome Res 13:2277-2290. (2003) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA000267P

Sample Description:Brahmin sampled from the Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh

Number of Chromosomes: 124

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mastana SS, Reddy PH, Das MK, Reddy P, Das K. "Molecular Genetic Diversity in 5 Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India". Hum. Biol. 72:499-510. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA000566R

Sample Description:This sample was collected from individuals living in Andhra Pradesh who belong to the Brahmin caste . Andhra Pradesh is located on the eastern coast of South India. The Brahmin caste is part of the upper Hindu caste hierarchy. All memebers of this sample speake Telegu, a Dravidian language.

Number of Chromosomes: 120

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Bamshad MJ, Watkins WS, Dixon ME, Jorde LB, Rao BB, Naidu JM, Prasad BVR, Rasanayagam A, Hammer MF. "Female gene flow stratifies Hindu castes". Nature 395:651-652. (1998) Online citation.

- Watkins WS, Bamshad M, Dixon ME, Bhaskara Rao B, Naidu JM, Reddy PG, Prasad BVR, Das PK, Reddy PC, Gai PB, Bhanu A, Kusuma YS, Lum JK, Fischer P, Jorde LB. "Multiple origins of the mtDNA 9-bp deletion in populations of South India". Am J Phys Anthropol 109:147-158. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Brahmin-Uttar Pradesh

Sample UID: SA000580N

Sample Description:This sample was collected from unrelated individuals in Garhwal of the Uttar Pradesh in northern India. The Brahmin belong to the Hindu Upper caste. They speak an Indo-European language. This caste has traditionally been made up of priests but has now encompassed various occupations.

Number of Chromosomes: 54

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Basu A, Mukherjee N, Roy S, Sengupta S, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M, Dey B, Roy M, Roy B, Bhattacharyya NP, Roychoudhury S, Majumder PP "Ethnic India: A Genomic View, with Special Reference to Peopling and Structure". Genome Res 13:2277-2290. (2003) Online citation.

- Majumder PP, Roy B, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M, Dey B, Mukherjee N, Roy M, Thakurta PG, Sil SK. "Human-specific insertion/deletion polymorphisms in Indian populations and their possible evolutionary implications ". Eur J Hum Genet 7:435-46. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Brahmin-West Bengal

Sample UID: SA000581O

Sample Description:This sample was collected from unrelated individuals in various locations in West Bengal (northeastern India). The Brahmin belong to the Hindu Upper caste. They speak an Indo-European language. This caste has traditionally been made up of priests but has now encompassed various occupations.

Number of Chromosomes: 46

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Basu A, Mukherjee N, Roy S, Sengupta S, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M, Dey B, Roy M, Roy B, Bhattacharyya NP, Roychoudhury S, Majumder PP "Ethnic India: A Genomic View, with Special Reference to Peopling and Structure". Genome Res 13:2277-2290. (2003) Online citation.

- Majumder PP, Roy B, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M, Dey B, Mukherjee N, Roy M, Thakurta PG, Sil SK. "Human-specific insertion/deletion polymorphisms in Indian populations and their possible evolutionary implications ". Eur J Hum Genet 7:435-46. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Desasth Brahmin

Sample UID: SA001168Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Desasth (Rigvedi) brahmin from Maharashtra, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 214

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gaikwad S, Kashyap VK. "Polymorphism at fifteen hypervariable microsatellite loci in four populations of Maharashtra, India". Forensic Sci Int. 126:267-271. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA001135K

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Brahmins from eastern India. Brahmins represent an Indo-Caucasoid general caste in the region.

Number of Chromosomes: 210

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Dutta R, Kashyap VK. "Allele frequency of six STR loci among three predominant population groups of eastern India". Forensic Sci Int. 119:129-130. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: Chitpavan Brahmin

Sample UID: SA001169R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Chitpaven brahmin from the coastal region (Konkan) of Maharashtra, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 134

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gaikwad S, Kashyap VK. "Polymorphism at fifteen hypervariable microsatellite loci in four populations of Maharashtra, India". Forensic Sci Int. 126:267-271. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Oriya Brahmin

Sample UID: SA001323J

Sample Description:This sample consists of Oriya Brahmins from the state of Orissa, India. The Oriya Brahmins form part of the upper crust fo the Hindu caste system. They speak the dialect "Oriya" and practice a very high degree of endogamy.

Number of Chromosomes: 114

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Sahoo S, Kashyap VK. "Influence of language and ancestry on genetic structure of contiguous populations: a microsatellite based study on populations of Orissa". BMC Genet. 6:4-13. (2005) Online citation.

- Sahoo S, Kashyap VK. "Allele frequency data for powerplex 16 loci in four major populations of Orissa, India". J Forensic Sci. 47:912-915. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Iyengar Brahmin

Sample UID: SA001154L

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals belonging to the Iyengar Brahmin Indian caste. This group practices high endogamy.

Number of Chromosomes: 130

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rajkumar R, Kashyap VK. "Distribution of alleles of 15 STR loci of the Powerplex 16 Multiplex system in four predominant population groups of South India". Forensic Sci Int. 126:173-177. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA001678W

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins (upper caste) sampled from Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 22

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shriver MD, Mei R, Parra EJ, Sonpar V, Halder I, Tishkoff SA, Schurr TG, Zhadanov SI, Osipova LP, Brutsaert TD, Friedlaender J, Jorde LB, Watkins WS, Bamshad MJ, Gutierrez G, Loi H, Matsuzaki H, Kittles RA, Argyropoulos G, Fernandez JR, Akey JM, Jones KW. "Large-scale SNP analysis reveals clustered and continuous patterns of human genetic variation". Hum Genomics. 2:81-89. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Konkanastha Brahmins

Sample UID: SA001831N

Sample Description:This samnple consists of healthy Konkanastha Brahmins residing in Mumbai, the capital city fo the state of Maharashtra. Konkanastha Brahmins are predominantly distributed in the Konkan coastal belt of Maharashtra (India). They are a Marathi-speaking people and are a priestly class.

Number of Chromosomes: 156

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ghosh A, Seshadri M. "Indian ethnic populations characterized by dopamine (D4) receptor VNTR polymorphism". Ann Hum Biol. 32:574-84. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA001552N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins living in Andhra Pradesh, India. Brahmins are an upper caste population that speak Telugu, a Dravidian language.

Number of Chromosomes: 56

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Reddy BM, Naidu VM, Madhavi VK, Thangaraj K, Langstieh BT, Venkataramana P, Kumar V, Singh L. "STR data for the Amp FlSTR Profiler Plus loci among 27 populations of different social hierarchy from southern part of Andhra Pradesh, India". Forensic Sci Int. 149:81-97. (2005) Online citation.

- Reddy BM, Reddy ANS, Nagaraja T, Bhaskar LVKS, Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes among the 28 Caste and Tribal Populations of India.". Int J Hum Genet 6:309-316. (2006)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin (IN-WL)

Sample UID: SA003413L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Maharashtra, India. They belong to the Upper caste and speak Marathhi.

Note: This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 28

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Andhra Brahmins

Sample UID: SA003710L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Andhra Pradesh. The Brahmins are classified as upper caste. This study was approved by the Institutional Review board of Andhra University.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Bamshad M, Kivisild T, Watkins WS, Dixon ME, Ricker CE, Rao BB, Naidu JM, Prasad BV, Reddy PG, Rasanayagam A, Papiha SS, Villems R, Redd AJ, Hammer MF, Nguyen SV, Carroll ML, Batzer MA, Jorde LB. "Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations". Genome Res. 11:994-1004. (2001) Online citation.

- Xing J, Watkins WS, Shlien A, Walker E, Huff CD, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Simonson TS, Weiss RB, Schiffman JD, Malkin D, Woodward SR, Jorde LB. "Toward a more uniform sampling of human genetic diversity: a survey of worldwide populations by high-density genotyping". Genomics 96:199-210. (2010) Online citation.

- Xing J, Watkins WS, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Guthery SL, Thara R, Mowry BJ, Bulayeva K, Weiss RB, Jorde LB. "Fine-scaled human genetic structure revealed by SNP microarrays". Genome Res. 19:815-25. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

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Sample Name: TN Brahmins

Sample UID: SA003714P

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Tamil Nadu. Brahmins are classified as higher caste.

Number of Chromosomes: 28

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Xing J, Watkins WS, Shlien A, Walker E, Huff CD, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Simonson TS, Weiss RB, Schiffman JD, Malkin D, Woodward SR, Jorde LB. "Toward a more uniform sampling of human genetic diversity: a survey of worldwide populations by high-density genotyping". Genomics 96:199-210. (2010) Online citation.

- Xing J, Watkins WS, Witherspoon DJ, Zhang Y, Guthery SL, Thara R, Mowry BJ, Bulayeva K, Weiss RB, Jorde LB. "Fine-scaled human genetic structure revealed by SNP microarrays". Genome Res. 19:815-25. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmins

Sample UID: SA003811N

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals belonging to Brahmin caste from multiple districts in Uttar Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 118

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gallego Romero I, Basu Mallick C, Liebert A, Crivellaro F, Chaubey G, Itan Y, Metspalu M, Eaaswarkhanth M, Pitchappan R, Villems R, Reich D, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Thomas MG, Swallow DM, Mirazón Lahr M, Kivisild T. "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence". Mol Biol Evol 29:249-260. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmins

Sample UID: SA003812O

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from Brahmin caste from Shahjahanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gallego Romero I, Basu Mallick C, Liebert A, Crivellaro F, Chaubey G, Itan Y, Metspalu M, Eaaswarkhanth M, Pitchappan R, Villems R, Reich D, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Thomas MG, Swallow DM, Mirazón Lahr M, Kivisild T. "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence". Mol Biol Evol 29:249-260. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA003816S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmin individuals from Almora district, Uttaranchal, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 30

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gallego Romero I, Basu Mallick C, Liebert A, Crivellaro F, Chaubey G, Itan Y, Metspalu M, Eaaswarkhanth M, Pitchappan R, Villems R, Reich D, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Thomas MG, Swallow DM, Mirazón Lahr M, Kivisild T. "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence". Mol Biol Evol 29:249-260. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA003823Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmin individuals from Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gallego Romero I, Basu Mallick C, Liebert A, Crivellaro F, Chaubey G, Itan Y, Metspalu M, Eaaswarkhanth M, Pitchappan R, Villems R, Reich D, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Thomas MG, Swallow DM, Mirazón Lahr M, Kivisild T. "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence". Mol Biol Evol 29:249-260. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmins

Sample UID: SA003830O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gallego Romero I, Basu Mallick C, Liebert A, Crivellaro F, Chaubey G, Itan Y, Metspalu M, Eaaswarkhanth M, Pitchappan R, Villems R, Reich D, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Thomas MG, Swallow DM, Mirazón Lahr M, Kivisild T. "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence". Mol Biol Evol 29:249-260. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Iyer

Sample UID: SA002282O

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Iyer individuals, a caste from South India. Ethnicity was confirmed by the participants and the individuals were unrelated at least to the second cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Majumder PP, Dey B "Absence of the HIV-1 protective Delta ccr5 allele in most ethnic populations of India". Eur J Hum Genet. 9:794-6. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Iyengar

Sample UID: SA002283P

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Iyengar individuals, a caste from South India. Ethnicity was confirmed by the participants and the individuals were unrelated at least to the second cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 102

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Majumder PP, Dey B "Absence of the HIV-1 protective Delta ccr5 allele in most ethnic populations of India". Eur J Hum Genet. 9:794-6. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmins

Sample UID: SA003232K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Bombay, India.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 210

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.

- Mastana SS, Calderon R, Pena J, Reddy PH, Papiha SS. "Anthropology of the apoplipoprotein E (apo E) gene: low frequency of apo E4 allele in Basques and in tribal (Baiga) populations of India". Ann Hum Biol. 25:137-43. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA002291O

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Brahmin individuals from North India. Ethnicity was confirmed by the participants and the individuals were unrelated at least to the second cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 54

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Majumder PP, Dey B "Absence of the HIV-1 protective Delta ccr5 allele in most ethnic populations of India". Eur J Hum Genet. 9:794-6. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA003250K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins.

Note: This sample information is not fully curated. For additional information about the sample, consult the publications under "References". The sample was entered as part of data submission by Eisenberg DA.

Number of Chromosomes: 294

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Eisenberg DA, Kuzawa, CW, Hayes MG "Worldwide allele frequencies of the human apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene: climate, local adaptations and evolutionary history". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 143:100-11. (2010) Online citation.

- Singh PP, Singh M, Mastana SS. "Genetic variation of apolipoproteins in North Indians". Hum Biol. 74:673-82. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA002312I

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Brahmin individuals, a caste from East India. Ethnicity was confirmed by the participants and the individuals were unrelated at least to the second cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 46

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Majumder PP, Dey B "Absence of the HIV-1 protective Delta ccr5 allele in most ethnic populations of India". Eur J Hum Genet. 9:794-6. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin (IN-DR)

Sample UID: SA003410I

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Andra pradesh, India. They belong to the upper caste.

Note: This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin (IN-NL)

Sample UID: SA003411J

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Uttar Pradesh, India. They belong to the upper caste.

Note: This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 30

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmins

Sample UID: SA003483S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Andra Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 38

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmins

Sample UID: SA003488X

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Kashmir, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA003491R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Madhya Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA003495V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Nepal.

Number of Chromosomes: 16

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Vizag Brahmins

Sample UID: SA002425N

Sample Description:This sample consists of Vizag Brahmins from Visakhapatnam, Andra Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 118

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ramana GV, Vasanthi A, Khaja M, Su B, Govindaiah V, Jin L, Singh L, Chakraborty R "Distribution of HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphic alleles SDF-1-3'A, CCR2-64I and CCR5-Delta32 in diverse populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India". J Genet. 80:137-40. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Peruru Brahmins

Sample UID: SA002426O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Peruru Brahmins from Vishakapatnam, Andra Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 90

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ramana GV, Vasanthi A, Khaja M, Su B, Govindaiah V, Jin L, Singh L, Chakraborty R "Distribution of HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphic alleles SDF-1-3'A, CCR2-64I and CCR5-Delta32 in diverse populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India". J Genet. 80:137-40. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA003503L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from Uttar-Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 44

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA003506O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmins from West Bengal, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Kashmiri Pandit

Sample UID: SA004456T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Kashmri Pandit from Jammu and Kashmir. This caste belongs to the Indo-European liguistic family. This sample consists of Paniya individuals from Kerala. This tribe belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample is part of the DNA bank of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad). The Institutional Ethical Committee of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad) approved the study, and prior permission was also obtained from local authorities.Informed written consent was obtained from each subject.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mishra A, Nizammuddin S, Mallick CB, Singh S, Prakash S, Siddiqui NA, Rai N, Carlus SJ, Sudhakar DV, Tripathi VP, Möls M, Kim-Howard X, Dewangan H, Mishra A, Reddy AG, Roy B, Pandey K, Chaubey G, Das P, Nath SK, Singh L, Thangaraj K "Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.". J Invest Dermatol. 137:670-677. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Pandit

Sample UID: SA004459W

Sample Description:This sample consists of Pandit individuals from Haryana. This caste belongs to the Indo-European linguistic family

Number of Chromosomes: 78

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mishra A, Nizammuddin S, Mallick CB, Singh S, Prakash S, Siddiqui NA, Rai N, Carlus SJ, Sudhakar DV, Tripathi VP, Möls M, Kim-Howard X, Dewangan H, Mishra A, Reddy AG, Roy B, Pandey K, Chaubey G, Das P, Nath SK, Singh L, Thangaraj K "Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.". J Invest Dermatol. 137:670-677. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Brahmin

Sample UID: SA004463R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Brahmin individuals from Uttar Pradesh. This caste belongs to the Indo-European linguistic family. This sample consists of Paniya individuals from Kerala. This tribe belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample is part of the DNA bank of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad). The Institutional Ethical Committee of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad) approved the study, and prior permission was also obtained from local authorities.Informed written consent was obtained from each subject.

Number of Chromosomes: 34

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mishra A, Nizammuddin S, Mallick CB, Singh S, Prakash S, Siddiqui NA, Rai N, Carlus SJ, Sudhakar DV, Tripathi VP, Möls M, Kim-Howard X, Dewangan H, Mishra A, Reddy AG, Roy B, Pandey K, Chaubey G, Das P, Nath SK, Singh L, Thangaraj K "Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.". J Invest Dermatol. 137:670-677. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Havik

Sample UID: SA004474T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Havik individuals from Karnataka. This caste belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample consists of Paniya individuals from Kerala. This tribe belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample is part of the DNA bank of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad). The Institutional Ethical Committee of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad) approved the study, and prior permission was also obtained from local authorities.Informed written consent was obtained from each subject.

Number of Chromosomes: 62

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mishra A, Nizammuddin S, Mallick CB, Singh S, Prakash S, Siddiqui NA, Rai N, Carlus SJ, Sudhakar DV, Tripathi VP, Möls M, Kim-Howard X, Dewangan H, Mishra A, Reddy AG, Roy B, Pandey K, Chaubey G, Das P, Nath SK, Singh L, Thangaraj K "Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.". J Invest Dermatol. 137:670-677. (2017) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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