ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
ChaggaPO000324JCHAGGANiger-Congo

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  2.5S, 37E; 3.5S, 38E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Ethnologue: Language Description Record    Ethnologue: Language Map Record    
References: See references
Population Description: 

The Chagga (also spelled Chaga or Shaka) are a Bantu-speaking people who inhabit the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, which is in northern Tanzania near the Kenyan border. They are descended from various groups who migrated from all directions into the once forest covered foothills. While the Chagga are Bantu-speakers, they do not speak an undifferentiated language but rather a cluster of related dialects. These dialects are related to Kamba, which is spoken in the northeast along with other languages spoken in the east such as Dabida and Pokomo.

The Chagga are the third largest ethnic group in Tanzania. Although the Chagga are referred to as a tribe, their land is traditionally divided into a number of politically independent chiefdoms with a relatively egalitarian social system. The Chagga are closely related, culturally, to the Pare, Taveta and Teita peoples. They follow a patrilineal system of descent and inheritance. The Chagga subsist primarily by agriculture, using irrigation on terraced fields and manure to develop the fields. Although bananas are their staple food, they also cultivate various crops including yams, beans, and maize. The Chagga are best known for their Arabica coffee, which is exported to American and European markets, resulting in coffee being their primary cash crop.


References:
- Moore SF, Puritt P. "The Chagga and Meru of Tanzania". London: International Institute of Africa (1977)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Chagga

Sample UID: SA000487T

Sample Description:This sample is comprised of 45 Chagga living in and around Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The mean age of the subjects is 27.91 years. All participants were born in th Mount Kilimanjaro region and both their parents originate from the same area. Screening for admixtures and mixed marriages was done through questionnaires and counseling. Sampling of two or more individuals from the same family was mostly avoided to maximize variation. This sample was collected by S. Kajuna and S. Kungulilo.

Number of Chromosomes: 90

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Chagga

Sample UID: SA001806P

Sample Description:This sample is comprised of 45 Chagga living in and around Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The mean age of the subjects is 27.91 years. All participants were born in th Mount Kilimanjaro region and both their parents originate from the same area. Screening for admixtures and mixed marriages was done through questionnaires and counseling. Sampling of two or more individuals from the same family was mostly avoided to maximize variation. This sample was collected by S. Kajuna and S. Kungulilo.

This sample is a subset of SA000487T.

Number of Chromosomes: 64

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000487T

References:
- Verdu P, Barreiro LB, Patin E, Gessain A, Cassar O, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Behar DM, Froment A, Heyer E, Sica L, Casanova J-L, Abel L, Quintana-Murci L. "Evolutionary Insights into the High Worldwide Prevalence of MBL2 Deficiency Alleles". Hum Mol Genet. 15:2650-2658. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Chagga

Sample UID: SA004689B

Sample Description:This sample consists of Chagga individuals from Tanzania, East Africa. Written informed consent was obtained from all individuals. This sample is part of Caixia Li's group in Institute of Forensic Science, Beijing, China. It was provided by the Kenneth K. Kidd's laboratory to Caixia lab.

Number of Chromosomes: 90

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Jiang L, Wei YL, Zhao L, Li N, Liu T, Liu HB, Ren LJ, Li JL, Hao HF, Li Q, Li CX. "Global analysis of population stratification using a smart panel of 27 continental ancestry-informative SNPs". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 35:e10-e12. (2018) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Chagga in East Africa(CEA)

Sample UID: SA004399Z

Sample Description:This sample is part of KiddLab sample collection. This sample was provided by K.K. Kidd, Yale University to Caixia Li's group for typing their markers

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000487T

References:
- Wei YL, Wei L, Zhao L, Sun QF, Jiang L, Zhang T, Liu HB, Chen JG, Ye J, Hu L, Li CX "A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents". Int J Legal Med. 130:27-37. (2016) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Chagga

Sample UID: SA004365S

Sample Description:This sample is part of the Kiddlab Sample collection and is a subset of SA000487T.

Number of Chromosomes: 78

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of SA000487T

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Chagga

Sample UID: SA004455S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Chagga participants who were part of the CKD-AFRIKA Study. This is a study of three-stage cluster probability sampling method, stratified by urban and rural setting, to randomly select households from randomly selected neighborhoods in the Moshi Urban and Moshi Rural districts from Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. All non-pregnant, community-dwelling adults (age above 18 years old) from the representative households were recruited into the study. As part of the CKD AFRiKA study, all enrolled participants were assessed for CKD using serum creatinine and urine albumin (17). All data were collected using trained, local surveyors and each participant completed a demographic and medical history survey. The 47 participants typed for these markers had Chronic Kidney Disease. The study protocol was approved by Duke University Institutional Review Board (#Pro00040784), the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College (KCMC) Ethics Committee (EC#502), and the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) in Tanzania. Written informed consent (by signature or thumbprint) was obtained from all participants.

Number of Chromosomes: 94

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Stanifer JW, Maro V, Egger J, Karia F, Thielman N, Turner EL, Shimbi D, Kilaweh H, Matemu O, Patel UD. "The epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in Northern Tanzania: a population-based survey". PLoS One. 10:e0124506. (2015) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan