ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
TharuPO000337NIndo-European

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  31N, 76E; 23.5N, 84.5E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: 
References: See references
Population Description: 

The Tharu is a large tribe of Uttar Pradesh whose origins are largely unknown. The Tharus claim to be descendants of the Rajputs, a dominant caste population of northern India who are supposedly ancestors of many of the present-day Hinduised sections of the north Indian ethnic groups.

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The Tharu are primarily agriculturalists, although some are fisherman and some continue to be hunter-gatherers. They are divided into five main, largely exogamous, subgroups.


References:
- Chakrabarti CS, Roy M, Sengupta NK, Lalthantluanga R, Majumder PP. "Genetic relationships among some tribal groups inhabiting the north-eastern, eastern and sub-Himalayan regions of India". Ann Hum Genet 66:361-368. (2002)
Online citation.



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Katharia Tharu

Sample UID: SA000505K

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the Tharu tribe, specifically from the subgroup Katharia (northern India). The sample was collected from individuals with informed consent. All participants were unrelated at least to the first cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 74

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chakrabarti CS, Roy M, Sengupta NK, Lalthantluanga R, Majumder PP. "Genetic relationships among some tribal groups inhabiting the north-eastern, eastern and sub-Himalayan regions of India". Ann Hum Genet 66:361-368. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Rana Tharu

Sample UID: SA000506L

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the Tharu tribe, specifically from the subgroup Rana (northern India). The sample was collected from individuals with informed consent. All participants were unrelated at least to the first cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 108

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chakrabarti CS, Roy M, Sengupta NK, Lalthantluanga R, Majumder PP. "Genetic relationships among some tribal groups inhabiting the north-eastern, eastern and sub-Himalayan regions of India". Ann Hum Genet 66:361-368. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tharu

Sample UID: SA003810M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Tharu individuals from Butwal district, Nepal.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gallego Romero I, Basu Mallick C, Liebert A, Crivellaro F, Chaubey G, Itan Y, Metspalu M, Eaaswarkhanth M, Pitchappan R, Villems R, Reich D, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Thomas MG, Swallow DM, Mirazón Lahr M, Kivisild T. "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence". Mol Biol Evol 29:249-260. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tharu

Sample UID: SA003815R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Tharu individuals from Nainital district, Uttar Pradesh.

Number of Chromosomes: 114

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gallego Romero I, Basu Mallick C, Liebert A, Crivellaro F, Chaubey G, Itan Y, Metspalu M, Eaaswarkhanth M, Pitchappan R, Villems R, Reich D, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Thomas MG, Swallow DM, Mirazón Lahr M, Kivisild T. "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence". Mol Biol Evol 29:249-260. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tharu (IN-NI)

Sample UID: SA003409Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Tharu (Himnalayan tribe) individuals. They speak the Pahari language.

Note: This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tharu

Sample UID: SA003054M

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Tharu individuals. All the subjects gave informed consent for the study.

Number of Chromosomes: 108

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Pepe G, Camacho Vanegas O, Giusti B, Brunelli T, Marcucci R, Attanasio M, Rickards O, De Stefano GF, Prisco D, Gensini GF, Abbate R. "Heterogeneity in world distribution of the thermolabile C677T mutation in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase". Am J Hum Genet. 63:917-20. (1998) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tharu

Sample UID: SA003494U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Tharu from Nepal.

Number of Chromosomes: 42

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tharu

Sample UID: SA003501J

Sample Description:This sample consists of Tharu from Uttar-Pradesh, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tharu

Sample UID: SA004483T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Tharu individuals from Uttarakhand. This tribe belongs to the Indo-European linguistic family. This sample consists of Paniya individuals from Kerala. This tribe belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample is part of the DNA bank of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad). The Institutional Ethical Committee of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad) approved the study, and prior permission was also obtained from local authorities.Informed written consent was obtained from each subject.

Number of Chromosomes: 114

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mishra A, Nizammuddin S, Mallick CB, Singh S, Prakash S, Siddiqui NA, Rai N, Carlus SJ, Sudhakar DV, Tripathi VP, Möls M, Kim-Howard X, Dewangan H, Mishra A, Reddy AG, Roy B, Pandey K, Chaubey G, Das P, Nath SK, Singh L, Thangaraj K "Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.". J Invest Dermatol. 137:670-677. (2017) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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