ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
HoPO000340HMunda/Austroasiatic

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  26N, 80E; 19N, 87E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: 
References: See references
Population Description: 

The Hos are an Austro-Asiatic speaking tribal group located primarily in the Indian region. Many believe that the large Austro-Asiatic tribes of this region were once a single tribe. In the process of migrated to different areas, they assumed different names. The Austro-Asiatic tribes are supposedly the most ancient inhabitants of India.

The Hos have been living in isolation for a long time. They are predominantly ancestor worshippers, although some have adopted Hinduism or Christianity. The Ho society is comprised of a number of exogamous clans.


References:
- Chakrabarti CS, Roy M, Sengupta NK, Lalthantluanga R, Majumder PP. "Genetic relationships among some tribal groups inhabiting the north-eastern, eastern and sub-Himalayan regions of India". Ann Hum Genet 66:361-368. (2002)
Online citation.



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ho

Sample UID: SA000509O

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the Ho tribal group (eastern India). The sample was collected from individuals with informed consent. All participants were unrelated at least to the first cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 108

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Basu A, Mukherjee N, Roy S, Sengupta S, Banerjee S, Chakraborty M, Dey B, Roy M, Roy B, Bhattacharyya NP, Roychoudhury S, Majumder PP "Ethnic India: A Genomic View, with Special Reference to Peopling and Structure". Genome Res 13:2277-2290. (2003) Online citation.

- Chakrabarti CS, Roy M, Sengupta NK, Lalthantluanga R, Majumder PP. "Genetic relationships among some tribal groups inhabiting the north-eastern, eastern and sub-Himalayan regions of India". Ann Hum Genet 66:361-368. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ho

Sample UID: SA003799C

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ho individuals from Begusarai district, Jharkhand. Ho is a tribe with Austro-Asiatic linguistic affliation.

Number of Chromosomes: 36

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Gallego Romero I, Basu Mallick C, Liebert A, Crivellaro F, Chaubey G, Itan Y, Metspalu M, Eaaswarkhanth M, Pitchappan R, Villems R, Reich D, Singh L, Thangaraj K, Thomas MG, Swallow DM, Mirazón Lahr M, Kivisild T. "Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence". Mol Biol Evol 29:249-260. (2012) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ho

Sample UID: SA002307M

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Ho individuals, a tribal population from East India. Ethnicity was confirmed by the participants and the individuals were unrelated at least to the second cousin level.

Number of Chromosomes: 108

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Majumder PP, Dey B "Absence of the HIV-1 protective Delta ccr5 allele in most ethnic populations of India". Eur J Hum Genet. 9:794-6. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ho

Sample UID: SA003486V

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ho from Jharkhand, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 64

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Choi Y, Mägi R, Romero IG, Soares P, van Oven M, Behar DM, Rootsi S, Hudjashov G, Mallick CB, Karmin M, Nelis M, Parik J, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, van Driem G, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Thangaraj K, Singh L, Remm M, Richards MB, Lahr MM, Kayser M, Villems R, Kivisild T. "Population Genetic Structure in Indian Austroasiatic speakers: The Role of Landscape Barriers and Sex-specific Admixture". Mol Biol Evol. (Epub ,ahead of print) (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ho

Sample UID: SA004490R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ho individuals from Jharkhand. This tribe belongs to the AustroAsiatic linguistic family. This sample consists of Paniya individuals from Kerala. This tribe belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample is part of the DNA bank of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad). The Institutional Ethical Committee of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad) approved the study, and prior permission was also obtained from local authorities.Informed written consent was obtained from each subject.

Number of Chromosomes: 88

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mishra A, Nizammuddin S, Mallick CB, Singh S, Prakash S, Siddiqui NA, Rai N, Carlus SJ, Sudhakar DV, Tripathi VP, Möls M, Kim-Howard X, Dewangan H, Mishra A, Reddy AG, Roy B, Pandey K, Chaubey G, Das P, Nath SK, Singh L, Thangaraj K "Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.". J Invest Dermatol. 137:670-677. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ho

Sample UID: SA004503M

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ho individuals from Odisha. This tribe belongs to the Austro-Asiatic linguistic family. This sample consists of Paniya individuals from Kerala. This tribe belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample is part of the DNA bank of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad). The Institutional Ethical Committee of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad) approved the study, and prior permission was also obtained from local authorities.Informed written consent was obtained from each subject.

Number of Chromosomes: 96

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mishra A, Nizammuddin S, Mallick CB, Singh S, Prakash S, Siddiqui NA, Rai N, Carlus SJ, Sudhakar DV, Tripathi VP, Möls M, Kim-Howard X, Dewangan H, Mishra A, Reddy AG, Roy B, Pandey K, Chaubey G, Das P, Nath SK, Singh L, Thangaraj K "Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.". J Invest Dermatol. 137:670-677. (2017) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
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