ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
TamilPO000354M

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  14N, 74.5E; 6N, 82E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: 
References: See references
Population Description: Being curated
References:


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamil

Sample UID: SA000641L

Sample Description:This sample was collected from unrelated Tamils from Sri Lanka.

Number of Chromosomes: 28

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Antunez-de-Mayolo G, Antunez-de-Mayolo A, Antunez-de-Mayolo P, Papiha SS, Hammer M, Yunis JJ, Yunis EJ, Damodaran C, de Pancorbo MM, Caeiro JL, Puzyrev VP, Herrera RJ. "Phylogenetics of worldwide human populations as determined by polymorphic Alu insertions". Electrophoresis 23:3346-3356. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamil

Sample UID: SA000532K

Sample Description:This sample consists of immigrants to Singapore from southern India and Sri Lanka, primarily of Dravidian origin.

Number of Chromosomes: 94

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Melton T, Peterson R, Redd AJ, Saha N, Sofro ASM, Martinson J, Stoneking M. "Polynesian genetic affinities with southeast Asian populations as identified by mtDNA analysis". Am J Hum Genet 57:403-414. (1995) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamil

Sample UID: SA001134J

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated healthy volunteers from Tamil Nadu, south India.

Number of Chromosomes: 240

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Panneerchelvam S, Vanaja N, Baskar D, Sivapriya V, Damodaran C. "Distribution of alleles of 12 STR loci in Tamil population (south India)". Forensic Sci Int. 119:126-128. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Dravidian

Sample UID: SA001613L

Sample Description:This sample consists of Dravidian individuals living in Tamil Nadu, India.

Number of Chromosomes: 100

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yoshiura KI et al. "A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type.". Nat Genet. 38:324-330. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamil

Sample UID: SA001403I

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated Tamil speaking volunteers.

Number of Chromosomes: 240

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Vanaja N, Panneerchelvam S, Sankaranarayanan KR, Baskar D, Rajmohan S, Nalina K, Damodaran C. "Allele frequency for D1S80 locus in Tamil population (South India)". J Forensic Sci. 46:177.. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamil

Sample UID: SA001535O

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated tamil speaking volunteers.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Panneerchelvam S, Vanaja N, Goud ChV, Sheeba A, Rao GV, Damodaran C. "Allele frequency distribution for nine fluorescent based STR loci in Tamil population (South India)". J Forensic Sci. 47:226-7. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamils

Sample UID: SA002796Y

Sample Description:This sample consists of Tamils. This sample had been included in an investigation of microsatellite variation in Indian populations (Rosenberg et al.2006). These individuals were sampled in various cities in the United States. Nearly all of these individuals were first-generation immigrants. All individuals gave their informed consent and the study was approved by the Instituional Review Board of baylor College of Medicine.

Number of Chromosomes: 30

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Pemberton TJ, Jakobsson M, Conrad DF, Coop G, Wall JD, Pritchard JK, Patel PI, Rosenberg NA. "Using population mixtures to optimize the utility of genomic databases: linkage disequilibrium and association study design in India". Ann Hum Genet. 72:535-46.. (2008) Online citation.

- Rosenberg NA, Mahajan S, Gonzalez-Quevedo C, Blum MG, Nino-Rosales L, Ninis V, Das P, Hegde M, Molinari L, Zapata G, Weber JL, Belmont JW, Patel PI. "Low levels of genetic divergence across geographically and linguistically diverse populations from India". PLoS Genet. 2:(2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamilian

Sample UID: SA003933S

Sample Description:This sample consists of unrelated, healthy volunteers from Tamil Nadu.

Number of Chromosomes: 298

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Krishnakumar D, Gurusamy U, Dhandapani K, Surendiran A, Baghel R, Kukreti R, Gangadhar R, Prayaga U, Manjunath S, Adithan C. "Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing phase I enzymes CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 in South Indian population". Fundam Clin Pharmacol. (Epub, ahead of print) (2011) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamils

Sample UID: SA003910N

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated volunteers from different regional parts of Tamilnadu.

Number of Chromosomes: 246

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Soya SS, Padmaja N, Adithan C. "Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and GSTP1 in a South Indian population--comparison with North Indians, Caucasians and Chinese. ". Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 6:315-9. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Srilankan Tamils

Sample UID: SA003537S

Sample Description:This sample consists of Srilankan tamils from Kandy, SriLanka. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant. The study was approved by the Human Ethics Committees of the participating institutes.

Number of Chromosomes: 70

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Fujihara J, Soejima M, Yasuda T, Koda Y, Agusa T, Kunito T, Tongu M, Yamada T, Takeshita H. "Global analysis of genetic variation in human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT)". Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 243:292-9. (2010) Online citation.

- Fujihara J, Ueki M, Yasuda T, Iida R, Soejima M, Koda Y, Kimura-Kataoka K, Kato H, Panduro A, Tongu M, Takeshita H. "Functional and Genetic Survey of All Known Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Within the Human Deoxyribonuclease I Gene in Wide-Ranging Ethnic Groups". DNA Cell Biol. (Epub, ahead of print) (2011) Online citation.

- Yasuda T, Ueki M, Takeshita H, Fujihara J, Kimura-Kataoka K, Iida R, Tsubota E, Soejima M, Koda Y, Kato H, Panduro A. "A biochemical and genetic study on all non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms of the gene encoding human deoxyribonuclease I potentially relevant to autoimmunity". Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 42:1216-25. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamilians

Sample UID: SA003034K

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy Tamilians.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Angeline T, Jeyaraj N, Granito S, Tsongalis GJ "Prevalence of MTHFR gene polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) among Tamilians". Exp Mol Pathol. 77:85-8. (2004) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Srilankan Tamils

Sample UID: SA003071L

Sample Description:This sample consists of SriLankan Tamil subjects recruited from Colombo, Sri Lanka between August 2001 and January 2003. All Subjects gave written informed consent to participate and the study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association. The study was approved by the Ethics Review Committee, Faculty of MEdicine, University of Colombo.

Number of Chromosomes: 160

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Dissanayake VH, Weerasekera LY, Gammulla CG, Jayasekara RW. "Prevalence of genetic thrombophilic polymorphisms in the Sri Lankan population--implications for association study design and clinical genetic testing services". Exp Mol Pathol. 87:159-62. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Tamil

Sample UID: SA003577W

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy male volunteers who were South Indian Tamil ethnicity and were admitted to the GOvernment Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Angeline T, Isabel W, Tsongalis GJ. "Endothelial nitric oxide gene polymorphisms, nitric oxide production and coronary artery disease risk in a South Indian population". Exp Mol Pathol. 89:205-8. (2010) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Mudaliyar

Sample UID: SA004481R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Mundaliyar individuals from Tamil Nadu. This caste belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample consists of Paniya individuals from Kerala. This tribe belongs to the Dravidian linguistic family. This sample is part of the DNA bank of CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad). The Institutional Ethical Committee of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (Hyderabad) approved the study, and prior permission was also obtained from local authorities.Informed written consent was obtained from each subject.

Number of Chromosomes: 52

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mishra A, Nizammuddin S, Mallick CB, Singh S, Prakash S, Siddiqui NA, Rai N, Carlus SJ, Sudhakar DV, Tripathi VP, Möls M, Kim-Howard X, Dewangan H, Mishra A, Reddy AG, Roy B, Pandey K, Chaubey G, Das P, Nath SK, Singh L, Thangaraj K "Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.". J Invest Dermatol. 137:670-677. (2017) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Sri Lankan Tamil in the UK (STU)

Sample UID: SA004241L

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals who identified themselves and their parent as Sri Lankan Tamil.

This sample is part of the 1000 genomes sample collections.

Number of Chromosomes: 204

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- 1000 genomes phase1 samples data Online citation.

- 1000genomes project samples page Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan