ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.
00ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
HezhePO000579V

Synonyms: Hezhen ;
Geographic Location1:  53.5N, 121.5E; 43N, 135E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: 
References: See references
Population Description: The Hezhe people are one of the smallest ethnic minorities in China. They are one of the officially recognized minorities. The Hezhe predominately live near the Heilong, Songhua and Wusuli rivers in Tongjiang, Fuyuan and Raohe counties in northeast China's Heilongjiang Province.

The history of the Hezhe population can be traced back to the Nuzhens, a Tartar group who lived along the northern borders of several Chinese dynasties. The Hezhe┐s maintained their traditional way of life through the beginning of the twentieth century.

The Hezhe speak their own traditional language. Their language belongs to the Manchu-Tongusi group of the Altaic language family. Unfortunately, this language is almost extinct. Only those over the age of 50 speak the Hezhe traditional language. The majority of Hezhe make their living through fishing. They supplement fishing with hunting and gathering wild vegetables and herbs.

Traditionally the Hezhe practice Shamanism and believe that everything in the universe has a spirit. Due the influence of the surrounding Chinese culture, Shamanism, like many of the other aspects of the traditional Hezhe life, is rarely practiced today.


References:


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hezhen, HGDP-CEPH

Sample UID: SA001490O

Sample Description:This sample from China is part of the Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel collected by the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) and the Foundation Jean Dausset (CEPH). This sample consists of unrelated individuals and was collected with proper informed consent.

Note: In many publications subset H952 of the HGDP panel (with first and second degree relatives excluded from the original set) was typed and for this population that decreases the sample size from 10 to 9 individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW. "Genetic structure of human populations". Science 298:2381-2385. (2002) Online citation.

- Rosenberg NA. "Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.". Ann Hum Genet. 70:841-847. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hezhen

Sample UID: SA002020E

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy unrelated Hezhen individuals from northeast China. Each individual was the offspring of a non-consanguineous marriage of members of the same nationality within three generations.

Number of Chromosomes: 64

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Ma L, Xue Y, Liu Y, Wang Z, Cui X, Li P, Fu S. "Polymorphism study of seven SNPs at ADH genes in 15 Chinese populations". Hereditas. 142:103-111. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hezhen

Sample UID: SA002755T

Sample Description:This sample consists of Hezhen individuals from China.

Number of Chromosomes: 40

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Li H & Kidd KK "Low allele frequency of ADH1B*47His in West China and different ADH1B haplotypes in Western Asia from Eastern Asia". Am. J. Med. Genet. 84:92-94. (2009)


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hezhe

Sample UID: SA002876X

Sample Description:This sample consists of male Hezhe individuals from China. The protocol of this study was approved by the institutional review board of Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Number of Chromosomes: 98

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shi H, Tan SJ, Zhong H, Hu W, Levine A, Xiao CJ, Peng Y, Qi XB, Shou WH, Ma RL, Li Y, Su B, Lu X "Winter temperature and UV are tightly linked to genetic changes in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway in Eastern Asia". Am J Hum Genet. 84:534-41.. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Hezhen

Sample UID: SA002635Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated Hezhen individuals from Tongjiang of Heilongjiang province, China. Each individual was the offspring of a non-consanguineous marriage of members of the same nationality within three generations. Informed consent from the participants and the approval of appropriate local authority were obtained.

Number of Chromosomes: 200

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Mao R, Fan Y, Chen F, Fu S. "Genetic polymorphism of MTHFR G1793A in Chinese populations". Eur J Epidemiol. (Epub ahead of print) (2008)

- Mao R, Fan Y, Chen F, Sun D, Bai J, Fu S. "Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms in 13 Chinese ethnic populations.". Cell Biochem Funct. 26:352-8. (2008) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan