ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the U. S. National Science Foundation.
ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
AmiPO000002CAMISAustronesian

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  24N, 121E; 22.5N, 121.5E  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources:  The Tribes of Taiwan Record    Ethnologue: Language Map Record     Map of Taiwan's Aborigines Record    Ethnologue: Language Description Record    
References: See references
Population Description: The Ami are one of Taiwan's aboriginal Austronesian-speaking groups. They are considered the island's "original" inhabitants before the arrive of migrants from mainland China. Austronesian groups probably reached Taiwan before 3000 BC and traditionally lived through hunting, gathering, and slash-and-burn agriculture. The Ami are matrilineal and matrilocal: they trace descent through the female line, and a man traditionally lives with his wife's family after marriage. Ami, with about 130,000 speakers in 1986, is the largest surviving dialect. As part of the Austronesian language family, Ami is related to Malay, Indonesian, Samoan, Tagalog and other languages of Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
References:
- Chin-chuan Y. "An anthropometric study of the coastal Ami, Tai-tung prefecture, Taiwan ". Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology Academy Sinica. 33:73-88. (1972)



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami

Sample UID: SA000289T

Sample Description:Members of the Paiwanic subgroup in Taiwan.

Number of Chromosomes: 38

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Parra E, Saha N, Soemantri AG, McGarvey ST, Hundrieser J, Shriver MD, Deka R. "Genetic Variation at 9 autosomal Microsatellite Loci in Asian and Pacific Populations". Hum. Biol. 71:757-779. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami, males

Sample UID: SA000002C

Sample Description:Sample is composed entirely of Austronesian-speaking Ami males.

Number of Chromosomes: 80

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Castiglione CM, Deinard AS, Speed WC, Sirugo G, Rosenbaum HC, Zhang Y, Grandy DK, Grigorenko EL, Bonne-Tamir B, Pakstis AJ, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Evolution of haplotypes at the DRD2 locus". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:1445-56. (1995) Online citation.

- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Kang AM, Palmatier MA, Kidd KK. "Global variation of a 40-bp VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3)". Biological Psychiatry 46:151-60. (1999) Online citation.

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html

- Kidd KK, Morar B, Castiglione CM, Zhao H, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Goldman D, Lee C, Nam YS, Grandy DK, Jenkins T, Kidd JR. "A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus". Hum. Genet. 103:211-27. (1998) Online citation.

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami

Sample UID: SA001043I

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ami from Taiwan. All subjects are unrelated and none were born from an interethnic marriage. These participants (20 male, 3 female) were control subjects who had no alcohol problems, meaning they either never drank or only occasionally drank in low quantity. Subjects were ascertained from either the Taiwan Aboriginal Study Project (TASP), or referred from local health workers.

Number of Chromosomes: 46

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chen WJ, Loh EW, Hsu YP, Cheng AT. "Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes and alcoholism among Taiwanese aborigines". Biol Psychiatry 41:703-709. (1997) Online citation.

- Chen WJ, Lu ML, Hsu YP, Chen CC, Yu JM, Cheng AT. "Dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcoholism among four aboriginal groups and Han in Taiwan". Am J Med Genet. 74:129-136. (1997) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami

Sample UID: SA001753Q

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ami from Formosa, Taiwan. Individuals were identified by biogeographical information traced back at least two generations. This sample was collected by Dr. Rene J. Herrera.

Number of Chromosomes: 158

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Shepard EM, Chow RA, Suafo'a E, Addison D, Perez-Miranda AM, Garcia-Bertrand RL, Herrera RJ. "Autosomal STR variation in five Austronesian populations". Hum Biol 77:825-851. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami

Sample UID: SA001378T

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated individuals from the Ami indigenous tribe in Taiwan.

Number of Chromosomes: 102

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yu LC, Chu CC, Chan YS, Chang CY, Twu YC, Lee HL, Lin M. "Polymorphism and distribution of the Secretor alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene in various Taiwanese populations". Transfusion 41:1279-1284. (2001) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami

Sample UID: SA001658U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ami, Taiwan Aborigines.

Number of Chromosomes: 102

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Yoshiura KI et al. "A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type.". Nat Genet. 38:324-330. (2006) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami (Formosa)

Sample UID: SA001844R

Sample Description:This sample consists of healthy, unrelated Ami individuals from Formosa (Taiwan).

Number of Chromosomes: 80

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Terreros MC, Martinez L, Herrera RJ. "Polymorphic Alu insertions and genetic diversity among African populations". Hum Biol. 77:675-704. (2005) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Amis

Sample UID: SA001387T

Sample Description:This sample consists of individuals from the Ami Taiwanese aboriginal tribe who gave informed consent.

Number of Chromosomes: 236

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Chang JG, Ko YC, Lee JC, Chang SJ, Liu TC, Shih MC, Peng CT. "Molecular analysis of mutations and polymorphisms of the Lewis secretor type alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene reveals that Taiwan aborigines are of Austronesian derivation". J Hum Genet. 47:60-65. (2002) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami

Sample UID: SA003975Y

Sample Description:This sample is the subset of the Kidd Lab Ami sample. This sample is composed entirely of Austronesian-speaking Ami males.

Number of Chromosomes: 50

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000002C

References:
- Publication pending


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami (AX-AM)

Sample UID: SA003395U

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ami individuals from Taiwan. This population belongs to Paiwanic Austronesian subfamily.The consortium id for this sample is AX-AM.

Note:This sample is part of the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium. The 71 samples from this Consortium were collected with informed consent and were approved by local ethics and institutional review boards (IRBs) in the respective countries from which the samples were collected. Copies of IRB approvals were reviewed with the Policy Review Board (PRB) of the Pan Asia SNP Consortium.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, Abdulla MA etal. "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 329:1541-5. (2009) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami

Sample UID: SA002332K

Sample Description:This sample consists of Ami individuals from Taiwan.

Number of Chromosomes: 20

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Su B, Jin L, Hu F, Xiao J, Luo J, Lu D, Zhang W, Chu J, Du R, Geng Z, Qiu X, Xue J, Tan J, O'Brien SJ, Chakraborty R "Distribution of two HIV-1-resistant polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A and CCR2-64I) in East Asian and world populations and its implication in AIDS epidemiology". Am J Hum Genet. 65:1047-53. (1999) Online citation.

- Su B, Sun G, Lu D, Xiao J, Hu F, Chakraborty R, Deka R, Jin L "Distribution of three HIV-1 resistance-conferring polymorphisms (SDF1-3'A, CCR2-641, and CCR5-delta32) in global populations". Eur J Hum Genet. 8:975-9. (2000) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Ami

Sample UID: SA004386V

Sample Description:This sample is part of Kidd lab sample collection and is subset of sample SA000002C.

Number of Chromosomes: 76

Relation to Other Samples: Subset of sample SA000002C

References:
- Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2017 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan