ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the U. S. National Science Foundation.
ALFRED detailed record information

Population Information

NameALFRED UIDPrimary LanguageLanguage Family
AraraPO000133HARARACarib

Synonyms:
Geographic Location1:  1N, 70W; 8S, 48W  

Sites typed for this population: View List
Population Samples: See Sample Information
External Resources: Arara description Record    Hidden Culures of the Amazon description Record    Ethnologue: Language report Record    Survival of the Arara description Record    
References: See references
Population Description: 

The Arara ('Macaw') are an Amerindian tribe located in the Amazonian region of Brazil in South America. The Arara are hunters and gatherers and speak a Carib language. Very little is known about the history of this particular tribe. Brief contact with the Arara began in the mid-nineteenth century. Occasional contact was again attempted by Funai (National Indian Foundation) in the 1970's to discuss the construction of the Transamazonia highway but was unsuccessful. The highway was eventually built and cut through the Arara's forest. The highway divided the Arara and disrupted their social system of exchanges, trading, and intermarriage between communities. The majority of Arara have consistently refused all contact with non-Indians.

The Arara have been granted two reserves by the Brazilian government, they include two stripes of land near the lower Iriri River. Unfortunately, the reserves have not been official legalized due to a lack of government funding. Because of this, the reserves are not properly marked or patrolled. This leaves the Arara open for several types of attacks.

The Arara have had ongoing clashes with their Amerindian neighbors, particularly the Kayapo and the Juruna. The Kayapo have been especially brutal by attempting several times to wipe out the Arara completely. Today the Arara face new enemies such as settlers and loggers. Settlers are setting up settlements on Arara land. Although it is illegal, the Brazilian government is doing very little to enforce this law. Loggers have also come into Arara territory illegally. The forest has been and continues to be vital to the Arara and their survival. Illegal loggers are destroying the forests contained on the Arara reserves. This has been very destructive for the Arara since the forest is their main, and possibly their only, source of subsistence (hunting and gathering). The Arara continue to struggle against these new enemies for their survival.


References:
- Hemming, J "Die If You Must". Longon: MacMillan (2003)

- Milton, K "Comparitive aspects of diet in Amazonian forest-dwellers". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 334:253-263. (1991) Online citation.



Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Arara

Sample UID: SA000464O

Sample Description:This sample consists of Arara, a Native American tribe located in the Brazilian Amozon region. The Arara have a high level of inbreeding making it difficult to study unrelated individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 30

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Guerreiro JF, Figueiredo MS, Zago MA. "Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes of Amerindian populations from the Brazilian Amazon region". Hum. Hered. 44:142-149. (1994) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Arara

Sample UID: SA000447P

Sample Description:The Arara are an Amerindian tribe located in the Brazilian Amazon. The Arara speak a Karib language. Becuase the Arara have a high level of inbreeding, it is difficult to study only unrelated individuals.

Number of Chromosomes: 42

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Da Silva WA Jr, Bortolini MC, Meyer D, Salzano FM, Elion J, Krishnamoorthy R, Schneider MP, De Guerra DC, Layrisse Z, Castellano HM, Weimer TD, Zago MA. "Genetic diversity of two African and sixteen South American populations determined on the basis of six hypervariable loci.". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 109:425-437. (1999) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Arara

Sample UID: SA000413I

Sample Description:The Arara belong to a tribe in the Brazilian Amazon region. The subjects are apparently unrelated based on pedigree data. The Arara speak a Karib language.

Number of Chromosomes: 30

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Franco RF, Araujo AG, Zago MA, Guerreiro JF, Figueiredo MS. "Factor IX gene haplotypes in Amerindians". Hum. Biol. 69:1- 9. (1997) Online citation.


Sample Information:

Graph estimated heterozygosities for various sites

Sample Name: Arara

Sample UID: SA003680R

Sample Description:This sample consists of Arara individuals from Brazil. All the South American natives studied in this publication and their ancestors (two generations) were born in the same community and spoke their own native language.

Number of Chromosomes: 48

Relation to Other Samples:

References:
- Acuņa-Alonzo V et al. "A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans". Hum Mol Genet 19:2877-85. (2010) Online citation.


1Geographic Coordinates represent two opposite corners of a rectangle encompassing the area where the population lives.This data is preliminary and changing.

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© 2016 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan