ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.

References to Classical Markers

ALFRED is focused on DNA-based polymorphisms but we recognize that there is a huge literature on the "classic" protein and blood group markers. As an aid to help users find those data, we are assembling a list of references of relevant books/publications. Please send us details of any additional references that you would like to add to the list.

Cavalli-Sforza L. Luca, Menozzi Paolo, and Piazza Alberto. "The History and Geography of Human Genes". Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Daniels G. “The molecular genetics of blood group polymorphism”. Hum Genet , 126:729–742, 2009

Denomme GA. “Molecular basis of blood group expression”. Transfusion and Apheresis Science, 44, 53–63, 2011

Giblett Eloise R. "Genetic markers in human blood". Oxford, Edinburgh: Blackwell Scientific, 1969.

Huang CH et al. “Molecular Biology and Genetics of the Rh Blood Group system”. Seminars in Hematology, 37(2):150-165, 2000

Livingstone, Frank B. "Frequencies of hemoglobin variants : thalassemia, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, G6PD variants, and ovalocytosis in human populations". New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Lögdberg L et al. “Human Blood Group Genes 2010: Chromosomal Locations and Cloning Strategies Revisited” , Transfusion Medicine Reviews, 25,( 1): pp 36-46 ,2011

Mourant AE., Kope´c Ada C., Domaniewska-Sobczak Kazimiera. "The distribution of the human blood groups, and other polymorphisms". 2nd ed. London : Oxford University Press, 1976.

Mourant A.E., Kope´c Ada C. Domaniewska-Sobczak Kazimiera. "Blood groups and diseases: a study of associations of diseases with blood groups and other polymorphisms". Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1978.

Race RR. and Sanger Ruth. "Blood groups in man". 6th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1975.

Roychoudhury AK, Nei M. "Human Polymorphic Genes: World Distributions". New York: Oxford Univeristy Press, 1988.

Rychkov , Yu. G. (Eds.). "Gene Pool and Genegeography of Population: Gene Pool of Population of Russia and Contiguous Countries" St.Petersburg: Nauka. 611 p. (in Russian),2000.rd University Press, 1981.

Rychkov , Yu. G. (Eds.). "Gene Pool and Genegeography of Population: Genegeographical Atlas of Population of Russia and Contiguous Countries", St.Petersburg: Nauka. 671 p. (in Russian),2003.

Steinberg A.G. and Cook Charles E. "The distribution of the human immunoglobulin allotypes". Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1981.

© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan