ALFRED: allele frequency database
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
ALFRED is a resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the Yale Center for Medical Informatics.

Sample Information:

Population NameSample NameALFRED UIDNumber of Chromosomes
MbutiMbuti PygmiesSA000006G78

Relation to Other Samples: 
Estimated heterozygosities for various sites: 
Sample Description: The sample is composed of Nilosaharan and Niger Kordofanian speaking Mbuti pygmies from the northeastern part of the Ituri Forest (northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo). It was collected by L.L. Cavalli-Sforza in 1986.
References:
- Bowcock AM, Bucci C, Hebert JM, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, JS Friedlaender, Cavalli-Sforza LL "Study of 47 DNA markers in five populations from four continents.". Gene Geography 1:47. (1987) Online citation.

- Bowcock AM, Hebert JM, Mountain JM, Kidd JR, Rogers J, Kidd KK, Cavalli-Sforza LL. "Study of an additional 58 DNA markers in five populations from four continents". Gene Geography 5:151-73. (1991) Online citation.

- Bowcock AM, Kidd JR, Mountain JL, Hebert JM, Carotenuto L, Kidd KK, Cavalli-Sforza LL. "Drift, admixture, and selection in human evolution: A study with DNA polymorphisms". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 88:839-43. (1991) Online citation.

- Castiglione CM, Deinard AS, Speed WC, Sirugo G, Rosenbaum HC, Zhang Y, Grandy DK, Grigorenko EL, Bonne-Tamir B, Pakstis AJ, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Evolution of haplotypes at the DRD2 locus". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 57:1445-56. (1995) Online citation.

- Chang FM, Kidd JR, Livak KJ, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus". Hum. Genet. 98:91-101. (1996) Online citation.

- Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "Global levels of DNA variation". Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Human Identification 1993 (Promega) 21-30. (1993)

- Kidd JR. "Population genetics and population history of Amerindians as reflected by nuclear DNA variation". Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University (1993)

- Kidd KK et al. http://info.med.yale.edu/genetics/kkidd/pops.html

- Kidd KK, Morar B, Castiglione CM, Zhao H, Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Bonne-Tamir B, Lu RB, Goldman D, Lee C, Nam YS, Grandy DK, Jenkins T, Kidd JR. "A global survey of haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium at the DRD2 locus". Hum. Genet. 103:211-27. (1998) Online citation.

- Mateu E, Calafell F, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Casals T, Kidd KK, Bertranpetit J. "Allele Frequencies in a Worldwide Survey of a CA Repeat in the First Intron of the CFTR Gene". Human Heredity 49:15-20. (1999) Online citation.

- Palmatier MA, Kang AM, Kidd KK. "Global variation in the frequencies of functionally different catechol-O-methyltransferase alleles". Biol. Psychiatry. 46:557-67. (1999) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Cheung K, Kidd JR, Bonne-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Watson E, Krings M, Paabo S, Risch N, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins". Science 271:1380-7. (1996) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Goldman A, Calafell F, Speed WC, Deinard AS, Bonne-Tamir B, Kidd JR, Pakstis AJ, Jenkins T, Kidd KK. "A global haplotype analysis of the myotonic dystrophy locus: implications for the evolution of modern humans and for the origin of myotonic dystrophy mutations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1389-402. (1998) Online citation.

- Tishkoff SA, Ruano G, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Distribution and frequency of a polymorphic Alu insertion at the plasminogen activator locus in humans". Hum. Genet. 97:759-64. (1996) Online citation.



© 2019 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan