ALFRED
      The ALlele FREquency Database   
A resource of gene frequency data on human populations
supported by the U. S. National Science Foundation.

SNP Sets

SetCitation
KiddLab - Interim Panel of 40 IISNPs - Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "Candidate SNPs for a Universal Individual Identification Panel". Human Genetics 121:305-317. (2007) Online citation.

KiddLab - 45 Unlinked IISNPs - Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Fang R, Hyland FCL, Furtado MR, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "SNPs for a universal individual identification panel". Human Genetics 127:315-24. (2010) Online citation.

- Kidd KK, Kidd JR, Speed WC, Fang R, Furtado MR, Hyland FC, Pakstis AJ. "Expanding data and resources for forensic use of SNPs in individual identification.". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 6:646-52. (2012) Online citation.

KiddLab - List of 86 IISNPs - Pakstis AJ, Speed WC, Fang R, Hyland FCL, Furtado MR, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "SNPs for a universal individual identification panel". Human Genetics 127:315-24. (2010) Online citation.

SNPforID 52-plex - Sánchez JJ, Phillips C, Borsting C, Balogh K, Bogus M, Fondevila M, Harrison CD, Musgrave-Brown E, Salas A, Syndercombe-Court D, Schneider PM, Carracedo A, Morling N. "A multiplex assay with 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms for human identification". Electrophoresis. 27:1713-1724. (2006) Online citation.

SNPforID 34-plex - Phillips C, Salas A, Sánchez JJ, Fondevila M, Gómez-Tato A, Álvarez-Dios J, Calaza M, Casares de Cal M , Ballard D, Lareu MV, Carracedo A - The SNPforID Consortium "Inferring ancestral origin using a single multiplex assay of ancestry-informative marker SNPs". Forensic Science International: Genetics 1:273-280. (2007) Online citation.

CODIS Set - Budowle B, Moretti TR, Niezgoda SJ, Brown BL "CODIS and PCR-based short tandem repeat loci: law enforcement tools, in: Proceedings of the Second European Symposium on Human Identification ". Proceedings of the Second European Symposium on Human Identification,Promega Corporation, Madison, WI, 73-88. (1998) Online citation.

Seldin's list of 128 AISNPs - Kosoy R, Nassir R, Tian C, White PA, Butler LM, Silva G, Kittles R, Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Gregersen PK, Belmont JW, De La Vega FM, Seldin MF. "Ancestry informative marker sets for determining continental origin and admixture proportions in common populations in America". Hum Mutat 30:69-78. (2009) Online citation.

- Kidd JR, Friedlaender FR, Speed WC, Pakstis AJ, De La Vega FM, Kidd KK "Analyses of a set of 128 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a global set of 119 population samples". Investigative Genetics 2:1. (2011) Online citation.

Dixon's 21-plex assay (Foren-SNP multiplex kit) - Dixon LA, Murray CM, Archer EJ, Dobbins AE, Koumi P, Gill P. "Validation of a 21-locus autosomal SNP multiplex for forensic identification purposes". Forensic Sci Int. 154:62-77. (2005) Online citation.

Vallone's set of 70SNPs(Orchid SNPs) - Vallone PM, Decker AE, Butler JM. "Allele frequencies for 70 autosomal SNP loci with U.S. Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic samples". Forensic Sci Int 149:279-86. (2005) Online citation.

KiddLab - Pilot Panel of 39 AISNPs - Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".

Panel of 25 IISNPs - Pietrangeli I, Ottaviani E, Martone C, Gabriele L, Arcudi G, Potenza S, Spinella A, Giardina E, Novelli G "Frequency assessment of 25 SNPs in five different populations". Forensic Science International: Genetics 4:e131-3. (2010) Online citation.

Kayser's 43 SNPs for Hair Color Prediction - Branicki W, Liu F, van Duijn K, Draus-Barini J, Pośpiech E, Walsh S, Kupiec T, Wojas-Pelc A, Kayser M. "Model-based prediction of human hair color using DNA variants". Hum Genet. 129:443-454. (2011) Online citation.

Kayser's 6-plex for eye color prediction - IrisPlex - Walsh S, Liu F, Ballantyne KN, van Oven M, Lao O, Kayser M. "IrisPlex: a sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information". Forensic Sci Int Genet 5:170-80. (2011) Online citation.

Kayser's set of 24 Ancestry Informative Markers - Lao O, Vallone PM, Coble MD, Diegoli TM, van Oven M, van der Gaag KJ, Pijpe J, de Knijff P, Kayser M. "Evaluating self-declared ancestry of U.S. Americans with autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA". Hum Mutat. 31:E1875-93. (2010) Online citation.

Qiagen Investigator DIPplex kit - Qiagen Investigator DIPplex® kit "Multiplex amplication of 30 deletion/insertion polymorphisms and amelogenin". (2011)

- Fondevila M, Pereira R, Gusmao L, Phillips C, Lareu MV, Carracedo A, Butler JM, Vallone PM "Forensic performance of two insertion-deletion marker assays ". Int J Legal Med. 126:725-37. (2012) Online citation.

KiddLab - Set of 44 AISNPs - Kenneth K. Kidd et al. "Data unpublished".

KiddLab - Set of 55 AISNPs - Kidd KK, Speed WC, Pakstis AJ, Furtado MR, Fang R, Madbouly A , Maiers M, Middha M, Friedlaender FR, Kidd JR. "Progress toward an efficient panel of SNPs for ancestry inference". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 23-32. (2014) Online citation.

- Pakstis AJ , Haigh E, Cherni L, Ben Ammar ElGaaied A, Barton A, Evsanaa B, Togtokh A, Brissenden J, Roscoe J, Bulbul O, Filoglu G, Gurkan C, Meiklejohn KA, Robertson JM, Li,C.-X. Wei Y.-L., Li H,Soundararajan U,Rajeevan H, Kidd JR, Kidd KK "52 additional reference population samples for the 55 AISNP panel". Forensic Science International: Genetics 269-271. (2015) Online citation.

Ruiz's 23 SNPs for eye color prediction - Ruiz Y, Phillips C, Gomez-Tato A, Alvarez-Dios J, Casares de Cal M, Cruz R, Maroñas O, Söchtig J, Fondevila M, Rodriguez-Cid MJ, Carracedo A, Lareu MV. "Further development of forensic eye color predictive tests". Forensic Sci Int Genet. (Epub,ahead of print) 7:28-40. (2013) Online citation.

Nievergelt's Set of 41AIMs - Nievergelt CM, Maihofer AX,Shekhtman T,Libiger O,Wang X,Kidd KK and Kidd JR "Inference of human continental origin and admixture proportions using a highly discriminative ancestry informative 41-SNP panel". Investigative Genetics (Epub) 4:13. (2013)

Daniele Podini's list of 32 AISNPs - Gettings KB, Lai R, Johnson JL, Peck MA, Hart JA, Dressman HG, Schanfield MS, Podini DS. "A 50-SNP assay for biogeographic ancestry and phenotype prediction in the U.S.population". Forensic Science International;Genetics 8:101-108. (2014)

Eurasiaplex 23 SNP Panel - Bulbul O, Filoglu G, Altuncul H, Aradas AF, Ruiz Y, Fondevila M, Phillips C, Carracedo A, Kriegel AK, Schneider PM "A SNP multiplex for the simulataneous prediction of biogeographic ancestry and pigmentaion type". Forensic science International:Genetics Supplement Series 3 e500-501. (2011)

- Phillips C, Aradas AF, Kriegel AK, Fondevila M, Bulbul O, Santos C, Rech FS, Carceles MD, Carracedo A, Schneider PM, Lareu MV. "Eurasiaplex: A forensic SNP assay for differentiating European and South Asian ancestries". Forensic Sci Int Genet 7:359-66. (2013) Online citation.

Rogalla's set of 14 AI SNPs - Rogalla U, Rychlicka E, Derenko MV, Malyarchuk BA, Grzybowski T. "Simple and cost-effective 14-loci SNP assay designed for differentiation of European, East Asian and African samples". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 14:42-9.. (2015) Online citation.

Overlap set of AISNPs - Soundararajan U, Yun L,Shi M, Kidd KK. "Minimal SNP overlap among multiple panels of ancestry informative markers argues for more international collaboration". Forensic Science International: Genetics (in press) (2016)

Peristera's panel of 50 SNPs - Paschou P1, Lewis J, Javed A, Drineas P. "Ancestry informative markers for fine-scale individual assignment to worldwide populations". J Med Genet. 47:835-47. (2010) Online citation.

Bulbul's 32plex(22AIMS+10PI markers) - Bulbul O, Filoglu G, Altuncul H, Aradas AF, Ruiz Y, Fondevila M, Phillips C, Carracedo A, Kriegel AK, Schneider PM "A SNP multiplex for the simulataneous prediction of biogeographic ancestry and pigmentaion type". Forensic science International:Genetics Supplement Series 3 e500-501. (2011)

Li's panel of 74AIMS - Li CX, Pakstis AJ, Jiang L, Wei YL, Sun QF, Wu H, Bulbul O, Wang P, Kang LL, Kidd JR, Kidd KK. "A panel of 74 AISNPs: Improved ancestry inference within Eastern Asia". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 23:101-10. (2016)

Revised SNPforID 34-plex - Fondevila M, Phillips C, Santos C, Freire Aradas A, Vallone PM, Butler JM, Lareu MV, Carracedo A. "Revision of the SNPforID 34-plex forensic ancestry test: Assay enhancements, standard reference sample genotypes and extended population studies". Forensic Sci Int Genet. (Epub, ahead of print) (2012) Online citation.

46-plex Indels - Santos C, Phillips C, Oldoni F, Amigo J, Fondevila M, Pereira R, Carracedo Á, Lareu MV. "Completion of a worldwide reference panel of samples for an ancestry informative Indel assay". Forensic Sci Int Genet. (Epub) 75-80. (2015) Online citation.

- Pereira R, Phillips C, Pinto N, Santos C, dos Santos SE, Amorim A, Carracedo Á, Gusmão L. "Straightforward inference of ancestry and admixture proportions through ancestry-informative insertion deletion multiplexing". Plos One 7:e29684. (2012) Online citation.

Combined panel of Kiddlab-55,Seldin's-128, and SNPforID34-plex AISNPs (192 SNPs) - Kidd KK, Speed WC, Pakstis AJ, Furtado MR, Fang R, Madbouly A , Maiers M, Middha M, Friedlaender FR, Kidd JR. "Progress toward an efficient panel of SNPs for ancestry inference". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 23-32. (2014) Online citation.

- Pakstis AJ , Haigh E, Cherni L, Ben Ammar ElGaaied A, Barton A, Evsanaa B, Togtokh A, Brissenden J, Roscoe J, Bulbul O, Filoglu G, Gurkan C, Meiklejohn KA, Robertson JM, Li,C.-X. Wei Y.-L., Li H,Soundararajan U,Rajeevan H, Kidd JR, Kidd KK "52 additional reference population samples for the 55 AISNP panel". Forensic Science International: Genetics 269-271. (2015) Online citation.

- Kidd JR, Friedlaender FR, Speed WC, Pakstis AJ, De La Vega FM, Kidd KK "Analyses of a set of 128 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a global set of 119 population samples". Investigative Genetics 2:1. (2011) Online citation.

- Kosoy R, Nassir R, Tian C, White PA, Butler LM, Silva G, Kittles R, Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Gregersen PK, Belmont JW, De La Vega FM, Seldin MF. "Ancestry informative marker sets for determining continental origin and admixture proportions in common populations in America". Hum Mutat 30:69-78. (2009) Online citation.

- Phillips C, Salas A, Sánchez JJ, Fondevila M, Gómez-Tato A, Álvarez-Dios J, Calaza M, Casares de Cal M , Ballard D, Lareu MV, Carracedo A - The SNPforID Consortium "Inferring ancestral origin using a single multiplex assay of ancestry-informative marker SNPs". Forensic Science International: Genetics 1:273-280. (2007) Online citation.

SWA 86 AISNP panel - Bulbul O, Speed WC, Gurkan C, Soundararajan U, Rajeevan H, Pakstis AJ, Kidd KK. "Improving Ancestry Distinctions Among Southwest Asian Populations". Forensic Science International: Genetics (Submitted) (2018)

Pacifiplex - Santos C, Phillips C, Fondevila M, Daniel R, van Oorschot RAH, Burchard EG, Schanfield MS, Souto L, Uacyisrael J, Via M, Carracedo Á, Lareu MV "Pacifiplex: an ancestry-informative SNP panel centred on Australia and the Pacific region". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 20:71-80. (2016) Online citation.

EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP panel - Phillips C, Parson W, Lundsberg B, Santos C, Freire-Aradas A, Torres M, Eduardoff M, Børsting C, Johansen P, Fondevila M, Morling N, Schneider P; EUROFORGEN-NoE Consortium, Carracedo A, Lareu MV. "Building a forensic ancestry panel from the ground up: The EUROFORGEN Global AIM-SNP set.". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 11:13-25. (2014) Online citation.

- Eduardoff M, Gross TE, Santos C, de la Puente M, Ballard D, Strobl C, Børsting C, Morling N, Fusco L, Hussing C, Egyed B, Souto L, Uacyisrael J, Syndercombe Court D, Carracedo Á, Lareu MV, Schneider PM, Parson W, Phillips C; EUROFORGEN-NoE Consortium, Parson W, Phillips C "Inter-laboratory evaluation of the EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP panel by massively parallel sequencing using the Ion PGM™". Forensic Sci Int Genet 23:178-89. (2016) Online citation.

Pereira's 38 indelplex for II - Pereira R, Phillips C, Alves C, Amorim A, Carracedo A, Gusmão L. "A new multiplex for human identification using insertion/deletion polymorphisms". Electrophoresis 30:3682-90. (2009) Online citation.

Li's panel of 27 AISNPs - Wei YL, Wei L, Zhao L, Sun QF, Jiang L, Zhang T, Liu HB, Chen JG, Ye J, Hu L, Li CX "A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents". Int J Legal Med. 130:27-37. (2016) Online citation.


© 2018 Kenneth K Kidd, Yale University. All rights reserved. The full Copyright Notification is also available.
Originally prototyped by Michael Osier with the aid of Kei Cheung
Upgrades and maintenance since 2002 by Haseena Rajeevan